The Keyaki Treebank

   Manual

       by Alastair Butler, Stephen Wright Horn, Kei Yoshimoto, Iku Nagasaki and Ai Kubota

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Acknowledgements

1   Introduction

2   List of tags

2.1   Part-of-speech tags

2.2   Syntactic tags

2.3   Specifications of clause linkage

2.4   Other tags

3   General parsing principles

4   Segmentation and part-of-speech annotation

5   Basic clause structure

5.1   Words as Clausal Constituents

6   Null elements

6.1   Null elements without indexing

6.2   Null elements that are always indexed

6.3   The position of null elements

7   Annotation of grammatical roles

7.1   Core grammatical roles

7.1.1   Explicitly marked arguments

7.1.2   Implicitly marked arguments

7.1.3   Omitted NPs

7.2   Peripheral grammatical roles

7.2.1   Explicitly marked adjuncts

7.2.2   Implicitly marked NPs

7.2.3   Adjunct trace

8   Particles/Postpositions (P)

8.1   Particles for core grammatical roles: が, を, に, の, と, で, から, etc.

8.2   Particles for peripheral roles: の, に, へ, で, から, まで, と, etc

8.3   Complex particles

8.4   Non-clausal conjunctive particles

8.5   Conjunctive particles subordinating conditional IPs

8.6   Conjunctive particles subordinating non-conditional IPs

8.7   Conjunctive particles coordinating independent IPs

8.8   Complementizer particles: と, という, etc.

8.8.1   Content complements of predicates

8.8.2   Content complements of nouns

8.9   Sentence-final particles: か, ね and よ, etc.

8.10   Particles as clausal constituents: て, ん, の, は, も, etc.

8.11   Toritate (focus) particles: か, しか, は, ばかり, も, etc.

8.12   Particle ommission

8.13   Particle stacking

8.14   Particle burying

9   Predicates

9.1   Verbs (VB)

9.1.1   Verb classification

9.1.2   Special cases (verbs)

9.2   い-adjectives (ADJI)

9.2.1   Special cases (adjectives)

9.3   Copular expressions

9.3.1   Copula

9.3.2   Shapes of copulas

9.3.3   Criteria for disambiguation of copulas (contributed by Hayashi, Noritugu)

9.3.4   な-adjectives (ADJN)

9.3.5   Special cases (ADJNs)

9.3.6   Nominal predicates

9.3.7   Special cases (nominal predicates)

9.3.8   PPs as copular complements

9.4   Predicate extensions

9.4.1   Extensions attaching to combining stems

9.4.2   Extensions attaching to finite inflections

9.4.3   Special cases for predicate extensions

10   Nouns (N)

11   Determiners (D)

12   Prenominals (PNL)

13   Adverbs (ADV)

14   Pronouns (PRO)

14.1   Reflexive pronouns

15   Numerals and classifiers (NUM and CL)

16   Parenthetical layer (PRN)

17   Intermediate Nominal Layer (NML)

18   Noun phrases (NP)

18.1   Subject (NP-SBJ)

18.2   Secondary subject (NP-SBJ2)

18.3   Logical subject (NP-LGS)

18.4   Primary non-subject argument (NP-OB1)

18.5   Secondary non-subject argument (NP-OB2)

18.6   Locative NP (NP-LOC)

18.7   Measure NP (NP-MSR)

18.8   Temporal (NP-TMP)

18.9   Adverbial NP (NP-ADV)

18.10   Vocative NP (NP-VOC)

18.11   Topic NP (NP-TPC)

18.12   Bare NP

19   Prenominal phrases (PNLP)

20   Adverb phrases (ADVP)

21   Predicate noun phrase (NP-PRD)

22   Adnominal clause

22.1   Relative clause with a trace (IP-REL)

22.2   Adnominal clause without a trace (IP-EMB)

22.3   Internally headed relative clauses

22.4   Resumptive pronoun

23   Clause types

23.1   Questions (CP-QUE)

23.2   Exclamatives (CP-EXL)

23.3   Imperatives (IP-IMP)

24   Control environments

24.1   Control into small clauses (IP-SMC)

24.2   Control into adverbial clauses (IP-ADV)

24.3   Control into content complements of nouns (IP-EMB)

24.4   Control into nominalisations

24.5   Preventing control with null elements

25   Coordinated clauses

25.1   Distinguishing between subordination and coordination

25.2   Expressing coordination while maintaining flat clausal stucture

25.3   Multiple clausal conjuncts

25.4   Summary

26   Non-clausal coordination (CONJP)

26.1   Coordinated NPs

26.2   Coordinated PPs

26.3   Coordinated ADVPs

27   Quantification

27.1   Expressions with Q

27.1.1   Prenominal expressions with Q

27.1.2   Appositive expressions with Q

27.1.3   Floating expressions with Q

27.1.4   Referring expression with Q

27.1.5   Host-less adverbial expressions with Q

27.2   Expressions with NUMCLP

27.2.1   Prenominal expressions with NUMCLP

27.2.2   Appositive expressions with NUMCLP

27.2.3   Floating expressions with NUMCLP

27.2.4   Referring expressions with NUMCLP

27.2.5   Host-less adverbial expressions with NUMCLP

27.3   Expressions with W

27.3.1   W expressions with も

27.3.2   W expressions with か

28   Constructions

28.1   N-bar deletion

28.2   Right node raising

28.3   Multiple sentences in a quotation

28.4   Focused pseudocleft constructions

28.5   Direct passive construction

28.5.1   Objects in passive

28.6   Causative

28.7   Causative passive

28.8   Indirect passive

28.9   Comparative construction with clauses

28.10   Raising-to-object construction

28.10.1   Raising out of a complementizer clause

28.10.2   Raising out of a small clause

28.11   Fragment (FRAG)

29   Punctuation

30   Metadata (META)

31   Colloquial forms

31.1   Interjection Phrase (INTJP)

31.2   False start (FS)

31.3   Ellipsis

31.4   Afterthoughts

31.5   Contractions

32   Ambiguous forms

32.1   Particles versus copulas

32.1.1   で

32.1.2   に

32.1.3   と

32.1.4   の

32.2   だろう and でしょう

32.3   (ら)れる

32.3.1   Direct passive

32.3.2   Indirect passive

32.3.3   Spontaneous

32.3.4   Potential

32.3.5   Honorifics

32.4   よう

References