Section 16
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16   Parenthetical layers (PRN)

Parenthetical elements are dominated by a node labeled PRN. When punctuation marks setting off a parenthetical element are present, (i.e., dashes, parentheses (-LRB- and -RRB-)) they are contained within the PRN node. The nature of parenthetical elements is varied: A parethetical element may be a side remark, an addition of detail, or it may be functionally equivalent to a sibling word.

(187)
東方仗助(ひがしかたじょうすけ)

( (FRAG (NP;{JOSUKE} (NPR 東方仗助)
                     (PRN (-LRB- ()
                          (NP (NPR ひがしかたじょうすけ))
                          (-RRB- )))))
  (ID 9_wikipedia_JOJO))

(188)
津波を防御した仙台東部道路の内陸側に立地する=仙台市若林区荒井東

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 津波))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 防御)
                                  (VB0 し)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (NPR 仙台東部道路))
                      (P の))
                  (N 内陸側))
              (P に))
          (VB 立地)
          (VB0 する)
          (PRN (SYM =)
               (NP;{LOC} (NPR 仙台市)
                         (NPR 若林区)
                         (NPR 荒井東))))
  (ID 34_newswire_KAHOKU_00078_K201401010A0FZ0XX00002))

Appositive relationships between NPs are annotated using PRN:

(189)
東北の空の玄関口・仙台空港は、16年3月の民営化方針が正式決定した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{FAC} (PRN (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP;{NORP} (NPR 東北))
                                             (P の))
                                         (N 空))
                                     (P の))
                                 (N 玄関口)))
                        (PU ・)
                        (NPR 仙台空港))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 16)
                                  (CL 年))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 3)
                                  (CL 月)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 民営化方針))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
          (VB 正式決定)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 86_newswire_KAHOKU_00078_K201401010A0FZ0XX00002))

Frequently a PRN will be sister to either a proper noun (NPR) or a pronoun (PRO), the pair being dominated by an NP.

     In principle PRNs can dominate any sort of category. In appositive relationships the PRN will dominate a category X and be dominated by the same category X.

(190)
◎せんだいメディアテーク館長・鷲田清一氏に聞く

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (SYM ◎)
          (PP (NP;{PERSON} (PRN (NP (N せんだいメディアテーク館長)))
                           (PU ・)
                           (NPR 鷲田清一氏))
              (P に))
          (VB 聞く))
  (ID 91_newswire_KAHOKU_00039_K201403130A0T10XX00001))


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