14   Pronouns (PRO) and indeterminate pronouns (WPRO)

NPs headed by overt pronouns (PRO) and by the under-specifed null element *pro* are always supplied with binding information. For these elements, if there is an overt antecedent NP in the same sentence, then the antecedent should share the identical binding information. If the antecedent for such an element is found in a previous sentence, identical binding information should be added to both NPs, taking care that the binding information is unique to that pair.

私, 私達, おれ, おれたち. あなた, あなたたち, お前, お前たち, 彼, 彼ら, 彼女, 彼女ら, こいつ, そいつ, あいつ, これ, それ, あれ, こちら, そちら, あちら, ここ, そこ, あそこ, 等
何, 誰, どれ, どちら, どっち, どなた, どこ, いつ, なんぼ, いくら, いずれ, 等

     Reflexive pronouns are not differentiated from other pronouns in the annotation and as with other pronouns, the NPs they head are given binding information. Being accessible to non-local antecedents, and being regularly subject-oriented, the behaviour of reflexive pronouns in Japanese does not follow the description of “anaphors” in classic Binding theory, but the general treatment of pronouns in the annotation makes their distribution according to these factors amenable to search. The list of principle items is not too long.

己, おのれ, 自分, ご自分, 自身, ご自身, 自ら, みずから, 自体, そのもの, その物

     In (181) below a reflexive pronoun has no overt antecedent in the sentence, but refers to the speaker. In the absence of more specific binding information, the annotation is ;{SPEAKER}.


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 自分自身))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (N 息子))
          (AX な)
          (FN ん)
          (AX です)
          (PU ――))
  (ID 240_aozora_Hayashida-2015))

When a reflexive pronoun appears in an appositive position under an NP1 projected by co-referential head of NP2 then NP1 is tagged (NP (NPR ) (PRN (NP (PRO ))) with binding information shared between it and NP2.


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン)
                  (PRN (NP (PRO 自身))))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-THT (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                          (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (NP-PRD (N 一目ぼれ))
                          (AX だっ)
                          (AXD た)
                          (-RRB- 」))
                  (P と))
          (VB 語っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 265_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

Here is an example of a reflexive pronoun local to its antecedent:


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N ブランド品))
              (P で))
          (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 着飾っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 845_dict_vv-lexicon))

Here is an example where the antecedent and the pronoun are in different clauses:


( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV さらに))
          (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (CP-THT (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO 自身))
                                  (P が))
                              (NP-SBJ *が*)
                              (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                              (NP-SBJ2 (N 魅力))
                                              (VB ある))
                                      (N 女性))
                              (AX だ))
                      (P と))
              (P は))
          (VB 思っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 380_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))