Section 13
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13   Adverbs (ADV) and Indeterminate Adverb (WADV)

Adverbs normally head ADVPs, which function to modify predicates.

(178)
けれども耕助のいかりはなかなか解けませんでした。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ けれども)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 耕助))
                      (P の))
                  (N いかり))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV なかなか))
          (VB 解け)
          (AX ませ)
          (NEG ん)
          (AX でし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 65_aozora_Miyazawa-1934_d))

Adverbs can also directly modify nouns that denote amount, degree, extent, etc.

(179)
学校の最も近くに住んでいるのは佐藤さんです。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 学校))
                                      (P の))
                                  (ADV 最も)
                                  (N 近く))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 住ん)
                          (P で)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (NPR 佐藤さん))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 55_misc_EXAMPLE))

Here are a few of the more common adverbs (ADV) in the corpus:

もう, そう, ちょっと, まだ, また, よく, すぐ, とても, 少し, まず, もし, かちん, やはり, 一番, こう, いつか, ただ, あまり, 特に, もっと

Here are examples for WADV:

いかが, いかに, いくら, どう, どうして, どのように, どんなに, なぜ, 何故, なんて

(180)
人生はいかに短いことか。
‘How short life is!’

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 人生))
                        (P は))
                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (ADVP (WADV いかに))
                    (ADJI 短い))
            (P こと)
            (P か)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 122_textbook_djg_advanced))

Adjectives in infinitive inflection can project ADVPs in the same way as lexical ADVs. There are also many lexicalised ADVs that have been derived from [VB + (P て)] sequences.


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