13   Adverbs (ADV) and Indeterminate Adverb (WADV)

Adverbs normally head ADVPs, which function to modify predicates.


( (IP-MAT (CONJ けれども)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 耕助))
                      (P の))
                  (N いかり))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV なかなか))
          (VB 解け)
          (AX ませ)
          (NEG ん)
          (AX でし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 664_aozora_Miyazawa-1934))

Adverbs can also directly modify nouns that denote amount, degree, extent, etc.


                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 学校))
                                      (P の))
                                  (ADV 最も)
                                  (N 近く))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 住ん)
                          (P で)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (NPR 佐藤さん))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 55_misc_EXAMPLE))

Here are a few of the more common adverbs (ADV) in the corpus:

もう, そう, ちょっと, まだ, また, よく, すぐ, とても, 少し, まず, もし, かちん, やはり, 一番, こう, いつか, ただ, あまり, 特に, もっと

Here are examples for WADV:

いかが, いかに, いくら, どう, どうして, どのように, どんなに, なぜ, 何故, なんて

‘How short life is!’

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 人生))
                        (P は))
                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (ADVP (WADV いかに))
                    (ADJI 短い))
            (P こと)
            (P か)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 122_textbook_djg_advanced))

Adjectives in infinitive inflection can project ADVPs in the same way as lexical ADVs. There are also many lexicalised ADVs that have been derived from [VB + (P て)] sequences.