20   Adverb phrases (ADVP)

Adverb phrases (ADVP) usually consist of an adverb head, possibly accompanied by modifiers and/or complements. Adverb phrases are not marked for function.

‘Mr. Suzuki always returns home late at night.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR 鈴木さん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV いつも))
          (ADVP (N 夜)
                (ADJI 遅く))
          (VB 帰宅)
          (VB0 する)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 112_textbook_kisonihongo))

‘No matter how old one may be , one can learn .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 人))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (ADVP (WADV どんなに))
                      (PP (NP (N 年))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB とっ)
                      (P て))
              (P も))
          (CND *)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (VB 学ぶ))
                  (N こと))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (VB できる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 486_textbook_TANAKA))

い-adjectives (ADJIs) in the infinitive inflection can head ADVPs, as can some ADJNs followed by the short infinitive form of the copula (AX に). Furthermore, some ADVPs are headed by de-verbal ADVs that have the same phonological form as a verb with an i/e/onbin combining stem plus (P て), for example, 初めて, 改めて, 敢えて, 決して, 極めて, かつて, せめて, etc.