19   Prenominal phrases (PNLP)

PNLPs are not headed by PLNs. PNLs are items that are not themselves modified, and do not appear in predicate position in main clauses or adverbial clauses, but modify a given N by directly attaching to the NP which that N projects (See section 12). The category of PLNP, on the other hand, is reserved for noun modification which cannot be adequately described according to any of the following scenarios:

  1. (NP (D ...) (N ...))
  2. (NP (PLN ...) (N ...))
  3. (NP (PP (NP ...) (P の)) (N ...))
  4. (NP (IP-REL ...) (N ...))
  5. (NP (IP-EMB ...) (N ...))
  6. (NP (CP-THT (IP-SUB ...) (P という)) (N ...))

For example, there are uses of one-place い-adjectives in noun-modifying contexts where the target of modification N is not the subject of the い-adjective in any direct sense, and the modifying element denotes neither the propositional content of N,

nor the content of epitaphs ascribed to N:


( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (N 昨晩))
          (PP (NP (PNLP (ADJI 古い))
                  (N 友人))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 訪ね)
          (P て)
          (VB2 来)
          (AXD た))
  (ID 39_misc_EXAMPLE))

Many of the instances are non-intersective or non-subsective. These expressions are not limited to い-adjectives or to subject gaps. The situation is possible with な-adjectives (e.g., 潜在的な問題), nominal predicates (e.g., 偽物のローレックス) and with verbs (装った友情, 辞めた大統領, etc.).

     In some cases (e.g, 女の腐った, etc.). these expressions are idiomatic and the structure is opaque. For this reason, any structure or aggregate of nodes is allowed to appear under PNLP.