Section 22
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22   Adnominal clauses

Adnominal clauses are headed by adnominal predicates, and modify a following N, PRO, WPRO, Q, or NPR. With the exception of the short form of the copula and some fossilized forms, adnominal precidates are indistiguishable from the past and non-past conclusive forms of predicates. Adnominal clauses are divided into two groups: gapped and gapless. The first group are those adnominal clauses which contain a gap which corresponds to the head noun (i.e., the modified noun). From a gapped adnominal clause A with predicate B modifying a noun C we can “reconstruct” a sentence in which C occupies the gapped position and takes a grammatical role with respect to either B or some other predicate contained in A. This type of “gapped” adnominal clause is called a relative clause and is tagged IP-REL. The gap and its function are annotated with a trace. An IP-REL used in series with another modifier can be used to show how a relative clause contains a gap:

22.1   Adnominal clauses with traces (IP-REL)

In an IP-REL clause a trace *T* occupies a constituent-initial position (see section 6 for details) and is accompanied by information to specify a grammatical role. (Functional elements may need to be added to a N restored to an argument position, although they are not marked on that N when it is the modified head.) In (227), the trace has subject grammatical role (NP-SBJ *T*):

(227)
彼は紙であふれた机にもたれている。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 紙))
                              (P で))
                          (VB あふれ)
                          (AX た))
                  (N 机))
              (P に))
          (VB もたれ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 173_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

An example in which the trace has object grammatical role:

(228)
何か欲しいものはないの?」

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                  (NP;*OB1* (WPRO 何)
                            (P か))
                  (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                                  (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                                  (ADJI 欲しい))
                          (N もの))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-OB1 *)
                  (ADJI ない))
          (P の)
          (PU ?)
          (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 93_aozora_Harada-1960_a))

An example of a long distance dependency, where the trace has subject grammatical role in a clause embedded inside the relative clause.

(229)
藤原千方に使役されたと言われる四人の鬼。
‘They are four ogres which are said to have worked for Chikata FUJIWARA.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{CHIKATA_GROUP} *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (CP-THT-SBJ (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                              (PP (NP;{CHIKATA} (NPR 藤原千方))
                                                  (P に))
                                              (NP-LGS *に*)
                                              (VB 使役)
                                              (VB0 さ)
                                              (PASS れ)
                                              (AXD た))
                                      (P と))
                          (VB 言わ)
                          (PASS れる))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 四)
                                  (CL 人)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 鬼))
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 29_wikipedia_KYOTO_13_CLT_00006))

A long distance dependency in which the trace is a subject inside an embedded question:

(230)
真筆であるか専門家の間でも意見の分かれるものも多々ある。
‘There are many works that even experts cannot agree if they are really his work or not .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (PRN-1 (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                 (NP-PRD (N 真筆))
                                                 (AX で)
                                                 (VB2 ある))
                                         (P か)))
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 専門家))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 間))
                              (P で)
                              (P も))
                          (PP (NP (N 意見)
                                  (PRN *ICH*-1))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ *の*)
                          (VB 分かれる))
                  (N もの))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV 多々))
          (VB ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 11_wikipedia_KYOTO_01_BDS_00001))

Embedded relative clauses:

(231)
これは、ジャックが建てた家に置かれた麦芽を食べたねずみです。
‘This is the Rat , That ate the Malt , That lay in the House that Jack built .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{REF3} (PRO これ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD;{RAT} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                (PP (NP;{MALT} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                       (PP (NP;{HOUSE} (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                                                                               (PP (NP;{JACK} (NPR ジャック))
                                                                                   (P が))
                                                                               (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                                                               (VB 建て)
                                                                               (AXD た))
                                                                       (N 家))
                                                           (P に))
                                                       (VB 置か)
                                                       (PASS れ)
                                                       (AXD た))
                                               (N 麦芽))
                                    (P を))
                                (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                (VB 食べ)
                                (AXD た))
                        (N ねずみ))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 4_misc_CALDECOTT-1878))

Stacked relative clauses:

(232)
最も貧しい10億人を表した向こうにある箱が見えますか?

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                  (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                  (ADVP (ADV 最も))
                                                  (ADJI 貧しい))
                                          (NUMCLP (NUM 10億)
                                                  (CL 人)))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 表し)
                                  (AX た))
                          (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 向こう))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB ある))
                          (N 箱))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-OB1 *が*)
                  (VB 見え)
                  (AX ます))
          (P か)
          (PU ?))
  (ID 101_translated_TED_7-HansRosling_2010S))

An example where the modified noun corresponds to positions in each of two coordinated clauses (in this annotation, a superordinate IP-REL has a trace, and an embedded IP-ADV, disambiguated by CONJ, also a trace). The trace immediately dominated by IP-REL comes after CONJ.

(233)
彼女はピアノが弾けそして絵もかける人です。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{WOMAN_27} (PRO 彼女))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (N ピアノ))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-OB1 *が*)
                                  (VB 弾け))
                          (CONJ そして)
                          (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 絵))
                              (P も))
                          (NP-OB1 *)
                          (VB かける))
                  (N 人))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 27_misc_EXAMPLE))

22.2   Adnominal clauses without traces (IP-EMB)

In the second group of adnominal clauses, the modified noun has no direct grammatical role with respect to the predicate of the modifying clause, which itself is a saturated structure. This type of “gappless” adnominal clause is assigned the label IP-EMB.

     One common type of IP-EMB construction involves the modification of formal nouns. Given that many formal nouns (はず, こと, ため, etc.) rarely appear in unmodified form, and then only with particular meanings (為になる話; 事が運ばない, モノを言うのは金だ; etc.) it is clear that in a usage as a formal noun, an element cannot “reconstruct” into its modifying clause and is modified by IP-EMB. The following example shows the formal noun の nominalising an activity predication:

(234)
かけぶとんをはねのけるのは、まったく簡単だった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (N かけぶとん))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB はねのける))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV まったく))
          (ADJN 簡単)
          (AX だっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 107_aozora_Harada-1960_a))

     Accordingly, when a noun (e.g., 時, 間, 前, 後, etc.) is being used as a formal or relational noun and takes a saturated adnominal clause, that clause is tagged as an IP-EMB.

     Some formal nouns are used adverbially (depending on the noun, either with or without a particle), to indicate aspect, time, manner, cause, rationale, etc. The adjunct-like nature of such constructions may tempt one to claim that they can “reconstruct” into an IP-EMB that already has a saturated arguemnt structure, but this is not the case. Parallel modification can be used to license the “reconstruction” of a formal noun into an adverb position, but the meaning is not preserved in the case of IP-EMB:

Here are more examples of formal nouns modified with IP-EMB:

(235)
今度彼に会ったときにこれを渡して下さい。
‘Please pass this to him next time you meet him.’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                          (NP-TMP (N 今度))
                          (PP (NP;{MAN_1273} (PRO 彼))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 会っ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N とき))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP;{STUFF_1273} (PRO これ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 渡し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 下さい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1273_textbook_kisonihongo))

(213)
沿線には大学が多いため学生利用が多い。
‘There are many colleges along this line, so many students use it.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADV (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 沿線))
                              (P に)
                              (P は))
                          (PP (NP (N 大学))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (ADJI 多い))
                  (N ため))
          (PP (NP (N 学生利用))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJI 多い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 7_wikipedia_KYOTO_19_RLW_00001))

(237)
私がするようにやってみてください。
‘Try doing as I do.’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_1168} (PRO 私))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB する))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (VB やっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 み)
          (P て)
          (VB2 ください)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1168_textbook_kisonihongo))

     In general, nouns that can bear propositional content all can take saturated adnominal clauses: nouns denoting forms of speech, writing, thought, perception, sense, event, activity, disposition, cause, outcome, manner, depiction, etc. The class of “picture nouns” is included here:

(238)
子供が笑っている写真が置いてあった。
‘A photo of a smiling child was put there.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 子供))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 笑っ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N 写真))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 置い)
          (P て)
          (PASS *)
          (VB2 あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1218_textbook_kisonihongo))

     Among the nouns commonly modified by IP-EMB are relational nouns such as 上, 下, 前, 後, 中, etc. The modifying clause specifies the value of the realtional noun.

(239)
鈴木さんに会う前に高津さんと相談しておいたほうがよい。
‘You had better talk with Mr. Takatsu before you meet Mr. Suzuki.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP;{SUZUKI_1204} (NPR 鈴木さん))
                                              (P に))
                                          (VB 会う))
                                  (N 前))
                              (P に))
                          (PP (NP;{TAKATSU_1204} (NPR 高津さん))
                              (P と))
                          (VB 相談)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 おい)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N ほう))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
          (ADJI よい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1204_textbook_kisonihongo))

     If a particle という or との intervenes between the adnominal clause and head noun, the clause is tagged IP-SUB instead of IP-EMB / IP-REL.

(240)
外国人に日本語を教えるという仕事は容易な仕事ではない。
‘It is not an easy job to teach Japanese to foreigners.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 外国人))
                                      (P に))
                                  (NP-OB2 *に*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 日本語))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 教える))
                          (P という))
                  (N 仕事))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 容易)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 仕事))
          (AX で)
          (P は)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1221_textbook_kisonihongo))

(241)
全員救助されたとの報告があった。
‘There was a report that everyone was rescued.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (QN 全員))
                                  (VB 救助)
                                  (VB0 さ)
                                  (PASS れ)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (P との))
                  (N 報告))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1208_textbook_kisonihongo))

22.3   Internally headed relative clauses

Internally headed relative clause constructions are not very common, but when they are found, the annotation pratice is to add (PP (NP *T*) (P *.e*)) immediately to the left of the constituent (either NP or PP) that is coreferent with the modified head の:

(242)
財布が落ちているのを拾った。
‘I picked up a wallet that had dropped.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{SPEAKER_34} *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                              (P *.e*))
                          (PP (NP (N 財布))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 落ち)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N の))
              (P を))
          (VB 拾っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 34_misc_EXAMPLE))

(243)
それから星の破片の落ちたのを拾って来て、かろく土の上へ乗せた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (CONJ それから)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                              (P *.e*))
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 星))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 破片))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ *の*)
                          (VB 落ち)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N の))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-ADV (VB 拾っ)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 来)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADJI かろく))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 土))
                      (P の))
                  (N 上))
              (P へ))
          (VB 乗せ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 50_aozora_Natsume-1908))

22.4   Resumptive pronouns

When a modified N does not have any grammatical role with respect to the predicate heading a modifying IP, a pronoun or referring expression coreferential with the head can sometimes appear. This is a special case where the modifying IP is marked as IP-REL and the trace is put into an PP headed by (P ***). Situations such as these are annotated with identical binding information on the co-referential items:

(244)
有間皇子がどうしてもそこから逃れることのできなかった悲運

( (FRAG (NP;{MISFORTUNE} (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                                     (P ***))
                                 (PP (NP (NPR 有間皇子))
                                     (P が))
                                 (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                 (ADVP (ADV どうしても))
                                 (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP;{MISFORTUNE} (PRO そこ))
                                                     (P から))
                                                 (VB 逃れる))
                                         (N こと))
                                     (P の))
                                 (NP-OB1 *の*)
                                 (VB でき)
                                 (NEG なかっ)
                                 (AXD た))
                         (N 悲運)))
  (ID 44_misc_EXAMPLE))

(245)
自分の兄弟だけがその中で苦しんでいる壕のなか

( (FRAG (NP (PP (NP;{FOXHOLE_45} (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                                             (P ***))
                                         (PP (NP (PP (NP;{SELF} (PRO 自分))
                                                     (P の))
                                                 (N 兄弟))
                                             (P だけ)
                                             (P が))
                                         (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                         (PP (NP (D;{FOXHOLE_45} その)
                                                 (N 中))
                                             (P で))
                                         (VB 苦しん)
                                         (P で)
                                         (VB2 いる))
                                 (N 壕))
                (P の))
            (N なか)))
  (ID 45_misc_EXAMPLE))


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