Section 23
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23   Clause types

This section focuses on clause types that do not form control environments (see section 26 for details) or form antecedent relationships from “Across the Board Extraction” (see section 27).

23.1   Questions (CP-QUE)

Direct and indirect questions are not differentiated by clause label.

     The whole sentence is tagged as CP-QUE, under which an IP-SUB occurs.

(246)
『これはどうした事か……

( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 『)
          (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO これ))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                  (VB し)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (N 事))
                  (AX *))
          (P か)
          (PU ……))
  (ID 214_aozora_Togawa-1937))

(247)
目ざましが鳴らなかったのだろうか。

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP;{ALARM_CLOCK} (N 目ざまし))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 鳴ら)
                  (NEG なかっ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (P の)
                  (AX だろ)
                  (MD う))
          (P か)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 53_aozora_Harada-1960_a))

A sentence is tagged as a question if it is not marked with か but has an interrogative meaning.

(248)
あなた、明日の会議お出になる。
‘Will you be present at the meeting tomorrow?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{HEARER_691} (PRO あなた))
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 明日))
                              (P の))
                          (N 会議))
                      (P *に*))
                  (VB お出)
                  (P に)
                  (VB2 なる))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 691_textbook_kisonihongo))

(249)
最後に自分に神を信仰するかと尋ねた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N 最後))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P に))
          (CP-THT (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 神))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 信仰)
                                  (VB0 する))
                          (P か))
                  (P と))
          (VB 尋ね)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 433_aozora_Natsume-1908))

In contrast, a か-marked sentence is treated as a non-question if it is without an interrogative meaning. See example (250) in the next section.

23.2   Exclamative utterances (CP-EXL)

Exclamatives are tagged CP-EXL. In this corpus, exclamatives are limited to the following constructions:

  1. 「なんと(いう)/なんて」 + 「こと(だろう)(か)」
  2. 「なんと(いう)/なんて」 + 「のだ/のだろう(か)」
  3. WPRO + 「(こと)だろう」
  4. A sentence that ends with 「とは」or「なんて」

(250)
「ああ、なんと彼を愛しておられたことか」。

( (CP-EXL (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (INTJ ああ)
                  (PU 、)
                  (ADVP (ADV なんと))
                  (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 愛し)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 おら)
                  (VB2 れ)
                  (AXD た))
          (P こと)
          (P か)
          (-RRB- 」)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 986_bible_new))

(251)
こんなにうれしいことがあるなんて!

( (CP-EXL (IP-SUB (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADVP (ADJN こんな)
                                        (AX に))
                                  (ADJI うれしい))
                          (N こと))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB ある))
          (P なんて)
          (PU !))
  (ID 40_misc_EXAMPLE))

Sentences that consist only with a noun phrase with an exclamation mark (e.g. きれいな空!) are tagged FRAG, not CP-EXL.

23.3   Imperative clauses (IP-IMP)

Imperatives are labeled IP-IMP. Both overt subjects and null subjects are included in the annotation.

(252)
「助けて!

( (IP-IMP (-LRB- 「)
          (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (NP-OB1 *speaker*)
          (VB 助け)
          (P て)
          (PU !))
  (ID 198_aozora_Harada-1960_b))

(253)
君が行ってくれ。
‘You go , please .’

( (IP-IMP (PP (NP (PRO 君))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 行っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 くれ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 293_textbook_purple_intermediate))

(254)
君はここにいなさい。
‘You must stay here.’

( (IP-IMP (PP (NP;{HEARER_537} (PRO 君))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP;{CURRENT_PLACE_537} (PRO ここ))
              (P に))
          (VB い)
          (VB2 なさい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 537_textbook_kisonihongo))

     In formal registers, the following form of imperative shows up:

(255)
(戒名と道号については「戒名」の項目を参照のこと。)
‘(Refer to the section on "Kaimyo" for Kaimyo and Dougou.)’

( (FRAG-IMP (-LRB- ()
            (NP (PP (IP-NML (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 戒名))
                                           (P と))
                                    (NP (N 道号)))
                                (P について)
                                (P は))
                            (PP (NP (PP (NP (-LRB- 「)
                                            (N 戒名)
                                            (-RRB- 」))
                                        (P の))
                                    (N 項目))
                                (P を))
                            (NP-OB1 *を*)
                            (VB 参照))
                    (P の))
                (N こと))
            (PU 。)
            (-RRB- )))
  (ID 11_wikipedia_KYOTO_05_BDS_00005))


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