23   Clause types

This section focuses on clause types that do not form control environments (see section 26 for details) or form antecedent relationships from “Across the Board Extraction” (see section 27).

23.1   Questions (CP-QUE)

Direct and indirect questions are not differentiated by clause label.

     The whole sentence is tagged as CP-QUE, under which an IP-SUB occurs.


( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 『)
          (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO これ))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                  (VB し)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (N 事))
                  (AX *))
          (P か)
          (PU ……))
  (ID 214_aozora_Togawa-1937))


( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 目ざまし))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 鳴ら)
                  (NEG なかっ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (FN の)
                  (AX だろ)
                  (MD う))
          (P か)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 53_aozora_Harada-1960))

A sentence is tagged as a question if it is not marked with か but has an interrogative meaning.

‘Will you be present at the meeting tomorrow?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO あなた))
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 明日))
                              (P の))
                          (N 会議))
                      (P *に*))
                  (VB お出)
                  (P に)
                  (VB2 なる))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 691_textbook_kisonihongo))


( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N 最後))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P に))
          (CP-THT (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 神))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 信仰)
                                  (VB0 する))
                          (P か))
                  (P と))
          (VB 尋ね)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 433_aozora_Natsume-1908))

In contrast, a か-marked sentence is treated as a non-question if it is without an interrogative meaning. See example (250) in the next section.

23.2   Exclamative utterances (CP-EXL)

Exclamatives are tagged CP-EXL. In this corpus, exclamatives are limited to the following constructions:

  1. 「なんと(いう)/なんて」 + 「こと(だろう)(か)」
  2. 「なんと(いう)/なんて」 + 「のだ/のだろう(か)」
  3. WPRO + 「(こと)だろう」
  4. A sentence that ends with 「とは」or「なんて」


( (CP-EXL (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (INTJ ああ)
                  (PU 、)
                  (ADVP (ADV なんと))
                  (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 愛し)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 おら)
                  (VB2 れ)
                  (AXD た))
          (P こと)
          (P か)
          (-RRB- 」)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 986_bible_new))


                                  (ADVP (ADJN こんな)
                                        (AX に))
                                  (ADJI うれしい))
                          (N こと))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB ある))
          (P なんて)
          (PU !))
  (ID 40_misc_EXAMPLE))

Sentences that consist only with a noun phrase with an exclamation mark (e.g. きれいな空!) are tagged FRAG, not CP-EXL.

23.3   Imperative clauses (IP-IMP)

Imperatives are labeled IP-IMP. Both overt subjects and null subjects are included in the annotation.


( (IP-IMP (-LRB- 「)
          (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (NP-OB1 *speaker*)
          (VB 助け)
          (P て)
          (PU !))
  (ID 406_aozora_Harada-1960))

‘You go , please .’

( (IP-IMP (PP (NP (PRO 君))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 行っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 くれ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 293_textbook_purple_intermediate))

‘You must stay here.’

( (IP-IMP (PP (NP (PRO 君))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PRO ここ))
              (P に))
          (VB い)
          (VB2 なさい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 537_textbook_kisonihongo))

     In formal registers, the following form of imperative shows up:

‘(Refer to the section on "Kaimyo" for Kaimyo and Dougou.)’

( (FRAG-IMP (-LRB- ()
            (NP (PP (IP-NML (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 戒名))
                                           (P と))
                                    (NP (N 道号)))
                                (P について)
                                (P は))
                            (PP (NP (PP (NP (-LRB- 「)
                                            (N 戒名)
                                            (-RRB- 」))
                                        (P の))
                                    (N 項目))
                                (P を))
                            (NP-OB1 *を*)
                            (VB 参照))
                    (P の))
                (N こと))
            (PU 。)
            (-RRB- )))
  (ID 11_wikipedia_KYOTO_5))