Section 24
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24   Nominalized clauses (IP-NML)

There are cases where a finite IP appears followed by a non-conjunctional particle, and functions as an argument or an adjunct of a predicate:

(256)
真に驚くべきは、宇宙膨張の速さが60億年ほど前から加速していることです。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-NML (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                      (PP (NP (N 真))
                          (P に))
                      (VB 驚く)
                      (MD べき))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 宇宙膨張))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 速さ))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 60億)
                                                  (CL 年)))
                                      (P ほど))
                                  (N 前))
                              (P から))
                          (VB 加速)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N こと))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 8_newswire_KAHOKU_11382_K201401010A0A30XX00006))

(257)
見出しだけでなく記事の冒頭部分や写真も表示するなどし、めりはりのあるレイアウトでニュースを発信していく。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (IP-NML (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 見出し))
                                             (P だけでなく))
                                      (CONJP (NP (PP (NP (N 記事))
                                                     (P の))
                                                 (N 冒頭部分))
                                             (P や))
                                      (NP (N 写真)))
                                  (P も))
                              (NP-OB1 *)
                              (VB 表示)
                              (VB0 する))
                      (P など))
                  (NP-OB1 *)
                  (VB2 し))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N めりはり))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ2 *の*)
                          (VB ある))
                  (N レイアウト))
              (P で))
          (PP (NP (N ニュース))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 発信)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いく)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 25_newswire_KAHOKU_00097_K201402230A0T20XX00001))

     Note that these are generally event nominalizations. The whole event or action denoted by the clause is what is denoted. Accordingly these are not to be confused with headless complex NPs as below:

(258)
残るは勾坂甚内だけ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (VB 残る)))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR 勾坂甚内))
              (P だけ))
          (NP-PRD *)
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 280_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

     Purposes can be nominalized in this way:

(259)
しかも、不良債権の最終処理という外科大手術をするには大量の輸血が必要で、日銀はさらなる量的金融緩和に踏み込まなければならない。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかも)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (IP-NML (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                              (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 不良債権))
                                                  (P の))
                                              (N 最終処理))
                                          (P という))
                                      (N 外科大手術))
                                  (P を))
                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                              (VB する))
                      (P に)
                      (P は))
                  (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q 大量))
                                (P の))
                          (N 輸血))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (ADJN 必要)
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (NPR 日銀))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN さらなる)
                          (AX *))
                  (N 量的金融緩和))
              (P に))
          (VB 踏み込ま)
          (MD なければならない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 62_newswire-closed_BCCWJ_17_PN1b_00004))

     One more use of IP-NML is for coordinating an IP with an NP:

(260)
「大蔵省の護送船団方式」や、「役所がハシの上げ下ろしまで口をはさむ」など日本の社会は規制によって育てられ、守られてきた。

( (IP-MAT (NP (CONJP (NP (-LRB- 「)
                         (PP (NP (N 大蔵省))
                             (P の))
                         (N 護送船団方式)
                         (-RRB- 」))
                     (P や))
              (PU 、)
              (IP-NML (-LRB- 「)
                      (PP (NP (N 役所))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (PP (NP (PP (NP (N ハシ))
                                  (P の))
                              (N 上げ下ろし))
                          (P まで))
                      (PP (NP (N 口))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB はさむ)
                      (-RRB- 」))
              (P など))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 日本))
                      (P の))
                  (N 社会))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 規制))
              (P によって))
          (NP-LGS *によって*)
          (IP-ADV (VB 育て)
                  (PASS られ))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (VB 守ら)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 き)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 238_newswire-closed_MAI_02_950103))


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