Section 30
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30   Constructions

This section describes the annotation of different constructions.

30.1   N-bar deletion

Infrequently there are examples in which a head noun appears to have been deleted and a の-headed PP functions as a restrictor on some generalized entity:

(398)
すごいいいデザインのがあってこれに決めた!!

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADVP (ADJI すごい))
                                          (ADJI いい))
                                  (N デザイン))
                              (P の)))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB あっ)
                  (P て))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP (PRO これ))
              (P に))
          (VB 決め)
          (AXD た)
          (PU !!))
  (ID 15_blog_KNB_06_006_Keitai))

     This phenomenon is called “N-bar deletion”. Note that the head is left empty; that is, with no overt annotation whatsoever. N-bar deletion occasionally appears together with an NP that has an overt N head corresponding to the missing head, e.g., in comparative constructions:

(399)
ITELはAPCOMが獲得したのより多くの注文を獲得した。
‘ITEL won more orders than APCOM did.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{ORG} (NPR ITEL))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                                            (PP (NP;{ORG} (NPR APCOM))
                                                (P が))
                                            (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                            (VB 獲得)
                                            (VB0 し)
                                            (AXD た))
                                    (N の))
                                (P より))
                            (Q 多く))
                        (P の))
                  (N 注文))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 獲得)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1497_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

But there is no requirement for an overt corresponding word in previous discourse. N-bar deletion should be distinguished from headless complex NPs as below:

(258)
残るは勾坂甚内だけ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (VB 残る)))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR 勾坂甚内))
              (P だけ))
          (NP-PRD *)
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 280_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

These latter constructions are examples of fossilised grammar from Classical Japanese.

30.2   Right node raising construction

Infrequently there are examples of coordination in which a head predicate appears to have been deleted from a non-initial conjunct:

(401)
右から開くと防災マップ、左から開くと高齢者見守りのマップとなるようにデザインした。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (IP-ADV (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                              (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                              (PP (NP (N 右))
                                                  (P から))
                                              (VB 開く))
                                      (P と))
                                  (CND *)
                                  (NP-OB1 (N 防災マップ)))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                      (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                      (PP (NP (N 左))
                                          (P から))
                                      (VB 開く))
                              (P と))
                          (CND *)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 高齢者見守り))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N マップ))
                              (P と))
                          (NP-OB1 *と*)
                          (VB なる))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (VB デザイン)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 13_newswire_KAHOKU_00033_K201402110A0T30XX00001))

The phenomenon is called “Right-node raising”. Note that the head of the first conjunct is left empty; that is, with no overt annotation whatsoever. The first conjunct forms an IP-ADV followed by (CONJ *).

(402)
最終的に舞台のアンネ役はスーザン・ストラスバーグが、映画のアンネ役はミリー・パーキンスが演じた。

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADJN 最終的)
                (AX に))
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 舞台))
                              (P の))
                          (N アンネ役))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-OB1 *)
                  (PP (NP (NPR スーザン・ストラスバーグ))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 映画))
                      (P の))
                  (N アンネ役))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (NP (NPR ミリー・パーキンス))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 演じ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 129_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

(403)
太郎は小説が、花子は詩が、好きだ。
‘Taro likes novels and Hanako poetry.’

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{TARO_1230} (NPR 太郎))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (PP (NP (N 小説))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-OB1 *が*))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{HANAKO_1230} (NPR 花子))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 詩))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (ADJN 好き)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1230_textbook_kisonihongo))

Note that in this case the first conjunct forms an IP-ADV without a predicate and is followed by (CONJ *).

30.3   Verbless depictive (absolute) clauses

There is a class of constructions that are similar to right-node raising constructions in that instantiations lack a verb. However, these constructions are unique in that they are adverbial to a following predication, rather than being parallel to it. The general form is [A を  B に], and the class is divided into two types with two different structural descriptions.

     If に  can be replaced by として without changing the meaning of the sentence, then [B に] is analyzed as a small clause, with に  as a copula in infinitive form:

(404)
この研究は中島教授を中心に進められている。
‘This research is progressing, with Prof. Nakajima taking the lead.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 研究))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NPR 中島教授))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 中心))
                          (AX に)))
          (SCON *)
          (VB 進め)
          (PASS られ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 418_textbook_djg_advanced))

(405)
親鸞は、ここを拠点に精力的な布教活動を行う。
‘He settled at Hitachi Province and spread his teachings vigorously to the people there.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR 親鸞))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PRO ここ))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 拠点))
                          (AX に)))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 精力的)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 布教活動))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 行う)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 77_wikipedia_KYOTO_07_BDS_00007))

     If に  cannot be replaced by として, then [B に] is analyzed as a post-positional phrase, with に  as a particle performing a peripheral grammatical role:

(406)
オリンピックを前に、選手たちは泳ぎ込んだ.

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NPR オリンピック))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (PP (NP (N 前))
                      (P に)))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 選手たち))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB;{泳ぎ込む.01} 泳ぎ込ん)
          (AXD だ)
          (PU .))
  (ID 569_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(407)
地図を手に目的地を探した。
‘I looked for the destination with a map in my hand.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 地図))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (PP (NP (N 手))
                      (P に))
                  (NP-OB2 *に*))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP (N 目的地))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 探し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1166_textbook_kisonihongo))

     Note that unlike right-node raising constructions, absolute constructions are followed by (SCON *).

30.4   Multiple sentences in a quotation

If there is concatenation of IP-MAT, IP-IMP or clauses of a CP* level within a quotation, or followed by a particle that modifies a noun with a content complement (という, といった, etc.), then the concatenated elements are placed directly under an instance of the multi-sentence tag. FRAG and INTJP, when forming distinct utterances, can also be placed directly under multi-sentence.

(408)
しかし私がお見せしたいのは誰が電話をかけているのかどこから電話をかけているのか、です

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかし)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PRO 私))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB お見せ)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AX たい))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (multi-sentence (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP (WPRO 誰))
                                              (P が))
                                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                          (PP (NP (N 電話))
                                              (P を))
                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                          (VB かけ)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 いる)
                                          (P の))
                                  (P か))
                          (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                          (PP (NP (WPRO どこ))
                                              (P から))
                                          (PP (NP (N 電話))
                                              (P を))
                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                          (VB かけ)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 いる)
                                          (P の))
                                  (P か)))
          (PU 、)
          (AX です))
  (ID 29_translated_TED_8-StefanaBroadbent_2009G))

(409)
私的日記にとどまらない、「誰かのためになる」「役に立つ」「琴線に触れる」ようなブログが、読み手の共感を得る。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 私的日記))
                              (P に))
                          (VB とどまら)
                          (NEG ない))
                  (PU 、)
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (multi-sentence (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                                                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (WPRO 誰)
                                                                          (P か))
                                                                      (P の))
                                                                  (N ため))
                                                              (P に))
                                                          (NP-OB1 *に*)
                                                          (VB なる)
                                                          (-RRB- 」))
                                                  (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                                                          (PP (NP (N 役))
                                                              (P に))
                                                          (VB 立つ)
                                                          (-RRB- 」))
                                                  (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                                                          (PP (NP (N 琴線))
                                                              (P に))
                                                          (VB 触れる)
                                                          (-RRB- 」)))
                                  (N よう))
                          (AX な))
                  (N ブログ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 読み手))
                      (P の))
                  (N 共感))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 得る)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 11_newswire_KAHOKU_00087_K201402230A0T10XX00001))

30.5   Focused pseudocleft constructions

Focused pseudocleft constructions are analysed as copular clauses, typically with NP-SBJ comprised of (N の) as the head noun, modified by an IP-REL with (NP-SBJ *T*) as a trace. A subject so comprised forms the presuppositional part of a focused pseudocleft sentence. The focus part of the sentence is a copular predication, typically formed on an NP-PRD.

(410)
太郎が勉強しているのは日本史だ。
‘It is Japanese history that Taro is studying.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                          (PP (NP;{TARO_1062} (NPR 太郎))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 勉強)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (N 日本史))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1062_textbook_kisonihongo))

The complement of the copula may include the projection of a particle phrase (PP) with a toritate particle (P). Between a such focus PP and a copula, (NP-PRD *) is introduced in the annotation:

(411)
しかし、そこから農民を扱って文学的に実を結んだのは佐左木俊郎一人きりであった。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかし)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PRO そこ))
                              (P から))
                          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 農民))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 扱っ)
                                  (P て))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (ADVP (ADJN 文学的)
                                (AX に))
                          (PP (NP (N 実))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 結ん)
                          (AXD だ))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (NPR 佐左木俊郎)
                  (PRN (NP;* (NUMCLP (NUM 一人))
                             (P きり))))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 37_aozora_Kuroshima-1970))

Particles other than toritate particles are also possible, but they are not disambiguated with (NP-PRD *). Instead, the PP simply takes the focus position without further annotation:

(176)
「わたしたちが信じるのは、もうあなたが話してくれたからではない。

( (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (PRO わたしたち))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 信じる))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                      (ADVP (ADV もう))
                      (PP (NP (PRO あなた))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (VB 話し)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 くれ)
                      (AXD た))
              (P から))
          (AX で)
          (P は)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 283_bible_new))

There are copular clauses that have the same surface structure as focused pseudocleft constructions, but don't involve the concealed question/answer pairing that is characteristic of focused pseudocleft constructions.

(413)
津波に対抗して堤防を高くするのは、技術力に依存した20世紀型の発想。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 津波))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 対抗)
                                  (VB0 し)
                                  (P て))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (PP (NP (N 堤防))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (ADJI 高く)
                          (VB2 する))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 技術力))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 依存)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AXD た))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 20)
                                  (CL 世紀))
                          (N 型))
                      (P の))
                  (N 発想))
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 97_newswire_KAHOKU_00078_K201401010A0FZ0XX00002))

There is no special annotation to distinguish these.

30.6   Double object constructions

Double object constructions, in which a transitive verbal noun taking an を-marked NP-OB1 is itself followed by を and VB0, occasionally occur in formal speech situations (e.g., in 国会会議録). In these instances, the second を  is treated as a clausal constituent P particle directly dominated by IP:

(414)
ただいま議題となりました法律案につきまして、経済産業委員会における審査の経過と結果を御報告を申し上げます。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N ただいま)
                                  (N 議題))
                              (P と))
                          (VB なり)
                          (AX まし)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 法律案))
              (P につきまして))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 経済産業委員会))
                              (P における))
                          (N 審査))
                      (P の))
                  (NML (CONJP (NP (N 経過))
                              (CONJ と))
                       (NP (N 結果))))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 御報告)
          (P を)
          (VB0 申し上げ)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 145_diet_OM67_00001))

(415)
また材料も厳選されたものを素材に応じてあくぬきなどをしながら、味をひきだす技術が要求される。
‘Also the techniques of bringing out the flavor is required by selecting ingredient carefully, cooking properly suited for each ingredient such as skimming the scum.’

( (IP-MAT (CONJ また)
          (PP (NP (N 材料))
              (P も))
          (NP-TPC *)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                      (VB 厳選)
                                                      (VB0 さ)
                                                      (PASS れ)
                                                      (AXD た))
                                              (N もの))
                                          (P を))
                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                      (PP (NP (N 素材))
                                          (P に応じて))
                                      (VB あくぬき)
                                      (P など)
                                      (P を)
                                      (VB し))
                              (P ながら))
                          (SCON *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (NP (N 味))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB ひきだす))
                  (N 技術))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 要求)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 57_wikipedia_KYOTO_16_CLT_00009))

30.7   Direct passive constructions

Direct passive sentences are those in which the NP-SBJ has the semantic role of Patient or Recipient with respect to the core predicate, and the NP with the semantic role of Agent with respect to the core predicate is marked with a role particle (に, から, によって, etc.). One way to think of this is that an underlying NP-OB1 or NP-OB2 has been promoted to subject position, while an underlying subject has been demoted to an oblique position. The NP with the Agent role is tagged NP-LGS (a logical subject). The passive auxiliary verb is labeled PASS. See section 9.1.2 for discussion.

(416)
そうすればお父さんからぶたれないだろう」

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV そう))
                  (VB すれ)
                  (P ば))
          (CND *)
          (PP (NP (N お父さん))
              (P から))
          (NP-LGS *から*)
          (VB ぶた)
          (PASS れ)
          (NEG ない)
          (MD だろう)
          (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 231_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

Passive constructions can feed the formation of double subject sentences:

(417)
ジョンは論文が受理された。
‘John had his paper accepted.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ジョン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 論文))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
          (VB 受理)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1209_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(418)
また、日本の仏像が古来から彩色が施されていた伝統を踏まえた作風とも考えられています。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (CONJ また)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP;{NORP} (NPR 日本))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (N 仏像))
                                              (P が))
                                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                          (PP (NP (N 古来))
                                              (P から))
                                          (PP (NP (N 彩色))
                                              (P が))
                                          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
                                          (VB 施さ)
                                          (PASS れ)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 い)
                                          (AXD た))
                                  (N 伝統))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 踏まえ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 作風))
              (P と)
              (P も))
          (VB 考え)
          (PASS られ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 39_newswire_KAHOKU_00042_K201402120A0KI0XX00001))

30.7.1   Objects in passive

In the passive construction with ditransitive verbs, either NP-OB1 or NP-OB2 may be promoted to subject position. The remaining object does not change its grammatical role with respect to the core verb.

(419)
二第三者に提供される個人データの項目
‘-LRB- ii -RRB- The items of the personal data to be provided to a third party’

( (FRAG (LST (LS 二))
        (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                            (PP (NP (N 第三者))
                                (P に))
                            (NP-OB2 *に*)
                            (VB 提供)
                            (VB0 さ)
                            (PASS れる))
                    (N 個人データ))
                (P の))
            (N 項目)))
  (ID 125_law_h15A119))

This entails that the only time NP-OB1 and PASS co-occur in the same IP is when the subject NP is promoted from an NP-OB2 position.

(420)
難しい時代に直面する今、私たちは構想力を問われている。

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJI 難しい))
                                  (N 時代))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 直面)
                          (VB0 する))
                  (N 今))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO 私たち))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 構想力))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 問わ)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 12_newswire_KAHOKU_00706_K201401010A0F10XX00202))

When the logical subject appears in the same clause as an NP-OB2, it is usually marked with a particle other than に (e.g., から, によって, により).

(421)
その後、禅宗の最高峰を極めた臨済宗は、南宋時代の中国に渡り学んだ栄西らによって、鎌倉時代に日本に伝えられている。
‘Later the Rinzai school , which achieved the pinnacle of Zen teaching , was brought to Japan in the Kamakura period by Eisai , who went to China to study in the Southern Song period .’

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (D その)
                  (N 後))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 禅宗))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 最高峰))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 極め)
                          (AXD た))
                  (NPR 臨済宗))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 南宋時代))
                                              (P の))
                                          (NPR 中国))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 渡り))
                          (VB 学ん)
                          (AXD だ))
                  (NPR 栄西ら))
              (P によって))
          (NP-LGS *によって*)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 鎌倉時代))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (NPR 日本))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB2 *に*)
          (VB 伝え)
          (PASS られ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 13_wikipedia_KYOTO_02_BDS_00002))

30.8   Causatives

Causative constructions are valence increasing constructions in that an additional argument (the Causer) is added to the argument frame of a predicate. In a causative construction, the core predicate (VB) and its non-subject (internal) arguments are placed inside an IP-SMC, while the semantic Agent of the core predicate (typically marked with either に or を) is tagged NP-OB1 and placed to the left of the IP-SMC (with the role of Causee) from which position it controls the subject position in the IP-SMC. The auxiliary verb (VB (さ)せる) accordingly becomes the first inflecting element of the matrix verbal syntagm (the definition of a core predicate), selecting an NP-SBJ with the role of Causer. See also example (123).

(270)
「どこからパンを買ってきて、この人々に食べさせようか」。

( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                  (IP-ADV (PP (NP (WPRO どこ))
                              (P から))
                          (PP (NP (N パン))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 買っ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 き)
                          (P て))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (D この)
                          (N 人々))
                      (P に))
                  (NP-OB1 *に*)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                          (VB 食べ))
                  (VB させ)
                  (MD よう))
          (P か)
          (-RRB- 」)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 397_bible_new))

30.9   Causative passives

In a causative passive construction, it is the NP-SBJ marked element of the matrix (=underlying NP-OB1 of the causative VB (さ)せる) that controls the empty subject position inside the IP-SMC clause. the core predicate (VB) and its non-subject (internal) arguments are placed inside an IP-SMC, while the semantic Agent of the core predicate (typically marked with either に or を) is tagged NP-OB1 and placed to the left of the IP-SMC (with the role of Causee) from which position it controls the subject position in the IP-SMC. The auxiliary verb (さ)せる (VB2) accordingly becomes the first inflecting element of the matrix verbal syntagm (the definition of a core predicate), selecting an NP-SBJ with the role of Causer.

(423)
高津さんはその事件を調べさせられた。
‘Mr. Takatsu was made to investigate the accident.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TAKATSU_435} (NPR 高津さん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-SMC (PP (NP;{CASE_425} (D その)
                                     (N 事件))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 調べ))
          (VB させ)
          (PASS られ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 435_textbook_kisonihongo))

(424)
そこで妹は母親の忠告によって自分の決心をひるがえさせられたりしてはいなかった。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ そこで)
          (PP (NP (N 妹))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 母親))
                      (P の))
                  (N 忠告))
              (P によって))
          (NP-LGS *によって*)
          (IP-SMC (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
                              (P の))
                          (N 決心))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB ひるがえさ))
          (VB せ)
          (PASS られ)
          (P たり)
          (VB2 し)
          (P て)
          (P は)
          (VB2 い)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 98_aozora_Harada-1960_d))

30.10   Indirect passives

Indirect passive constructions are valence increasing constructions in that an Affected NP-SBJ is added to the argument frame, while the logical subject of the core predicate is demoted to NP-OB1 and marked with に. These two arguments are sisters of the passive morpheme (VB2 (ら)れる), while ---parallel with the annotation for causative constructions (see section 30.8)--- the core predicate (VB) and its non-subject (internal) arguments are placed inside an IP-SMC. That is, the internal arguments of the core predicate remain local to the core predicate, retaining their grammatical roles and particle-marking. In contrast to the direct passive (see section 30.7), in an indirect passive construction the auxiliary verb (ら)れる is assigned the label VB.

(425)
太郎が花子に泣かれた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 太郎))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 花子))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (IP-SMC (VB 泣か))
          (VB れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1822_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(426)
太郎は先生に絵をほめられた。
‘Taro was praised for the picture by his teacher.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_413} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 先生))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (IP-SMC (PP (NP (N 絵))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB ほめ))
          (VB られ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 413_textbook_kisonihongo))

It may seem counterintuitive to mark the logical subject of an indirect passive as NP-OB1, but this annotation practice ensures the right result for the calculation of control relations.

30.11   Comparative constructions with clauses

In a comparison of two activities or events, typically the one forming the basis of comparison will be expressed in a finite clause marked directly with particle より, while the event that is characterised is typically an NP-SBJ formed on a formal noun:

(427)
理屈をひねくり回すより、やってみることが大切だ.

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                      (PP (NP (N 理屈))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB;{ひねくり回す.01} ひねくり回す))
              (P より))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                          (VB2 やっ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 みる))
                  (N こと))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJN 大切)
          (AX だ)
          (PU .))
  (ID 2663_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(428)
そうなったら、私は、死ぬよりつらい。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                      (ADVP (ADV そう))
                      (VB なっ))
              (P たら))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (VB 死ぬ))
              (P より))
          (ADJI つらい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 294_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

30.12   Fragments (FRAG)

When there is a series of one or more phrases which neither form a constituent nor an IP, the construction is a fragment and the member phrase(s) can be placed under FRAG.

(429)
まったく。

( (FRAG (ADVP (ADV まったく))
        (PU 。))
  (ID 21_aozora_Harada-1960_b))

(430)
おそらく、ある観念も。

( (FRAG (ADVP (ADV おそらく))
        (PU 、)
        (PP (NP (D ある)
                (N 観念))
            (P も))
        (NP-SBJ *)
        (PU 。))
  (ID 184_aozora_Hayashida-2015))

Single NPs or PPs used as exclamative utterances fall into this scenario.

(431)
泥棒!

( (FRAG (NP (N 泥棒))
        (PU !))
  (ID 28_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

This policy applies to imperative utterances formed on こと as well:

(432)
この第6作については『仮面ライダー(スカイライダー)』を参照のこと。

( (FRAG-IMP (NP (PP (IP-NML (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                            (PP (NP;{SKYRIDER_SERIES} (D この)
                                                      (NUMCLP (NUM 第6)
                                                              (CL 作)))
                                (P について)
                                (P は))
                            (PP (NP (-LRB- 『)
                                    (NPR 仮面ライダー)
                                    (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                         (NP (NPR スカイライダー))
                                         (-RRB- )))
                                    (-RRB- 』))
                                (P を))
                            (NP-OB1 *を*)
                            (VB 参照))
                    (P の))
                (N こと))
            (PU 。))
  (ID 11_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

Note that FRAG can appear under CP-THT:

(433)
糞坊主めとはがみをした。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (CP-THT (FRAG (NP (N 糞坊主め)))
                  (P と))
          (PP (NP (N はがみ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 116_aozora_Natsume-1908))

30.13   Purpose of motion clauses

There are a variety of ways to denote purpose of state or activity without using a formal noun such as ため.

Verbs denoting motion are occasionally modified by either adverbial clauses or deverbal nouns indicating the purpose of motion. When such adverbial clauses end with an infinitive predicate followed by the form に, those clauses are obligatory control environments. They receive a special extension in the annotation: The infinitive verb heads an IP-ADV clause under PP-PRP, which itself is headed by a conjunctional particle に. Typically the subject of a verb of motion serves as the antecedent in the control relation:

(434)
メロスは、それゆえ、花嫁の衣裳やら祝宴の御馳走やらを買いに、はるばる市にやって来たのだ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR メロス))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV それゆえ))
          (PU 、)
          (PP-PRP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (PP (NP (N 花嫁))
                                                 (P の))
                                             (N 衣裳))
                                         (P やら))
                                  (NP (PP (NP (N 祝宴))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 御馳走))
                                  (P やら))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 買い))
                  (P に))
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV はるばる))
          (PP (NP (N 市))
              (P に))
          (VB やっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 来)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 15_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

However, non-subject arguments of causative predications such as 行かせる  and verbs such as 派遣する  can also serve as controllers for purpose of motion clauses.

(435)
小僧にききにこさせるだけでほんとうに十分ではないだろうか

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                              (PP (NP (N 小僧))
                                  (P に))
                              (NP-OB1 *に*)
                              (IP-SMC (PP-PRP (IP-ADV (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                                      (VB きき))
                                              (P に))
                                      (VB こ))
                              (VB させる))
                      (P だけ)
                      (P で))
                  (PP (NP (N ほんとう))
                      (P に))
                  (ADJN 十分)
                  (AX で)
                  (P は)
                  (NEG ない)
                  (MD だろう))
          (P か))
  (ID 162_aozora_Harada-1960_a))

     Purpose of motion constructions can also be formed on deverbal nouns such as 買い物  or 買い出し  or 購入. In such cases the deverbal noun shows no verbal argument structure, but heads an NP complement of a case particle に, which heads a PP-PRP.

30.14   Various quotes (including CP-THT and CP-QUE)

Full utterance types CP-THT and CP-QUE can appear under IP as complements of verbs of signification and cognition. The “quote” does not actually have to be interpreted as though the words were uttered.

(436)
しかし翌日になってヘプバーンは戻ってきて、「ひどい態度だった」とその場の全員に謝罪している。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかし)
          (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                  (PP (NP (N 翌日))
                      (P に))
                  (VB なっ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (VB 戻っ)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 き)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJI ひどい))
                                  (N 態度))
                          (AX だっ)
                          (AXD た)
                          (-RRB- 」))
                  (P と))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                          (N 場))
                      (P の))
                  (QN 全員))
              (P に))
          (VB 謝罪)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 187_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

(437)
山はもう寒いか聞いてください。
‘Please ask if it is already cold in the mountains .’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 山))
                              (P は))
                          (NP-SBJ *)
                          (ADVP (ADV もう))
                          (ADJI 寒い))
                  (P か))
          (VB 聞い)
          (P て)
          (VB2 ください)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 710_textbook_purple_intermediate))

     CP-THT and CP-QUE are also treated as complements when they appear together with a verbal noun that is marked with を  and followed by する  or one of its equvalents (that is, a verb that would otherwise be analyzed as a light verb):

(438)
わたしはそれを見たので、このかたこそ神の子であると、あかしをしたのである」。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO わたし))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PRO それ))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 見)
                      (AXD た))
              (P ので))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (PP (NP (D この)
                                  (N かた))
                              (P こそ))
                          (NP-SBJ *)
                          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (N 神))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 子))
                          (AX で)
                          (VB2 ある))
                  (P と))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N あかし))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB し)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (-RRB- 」)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 61_bible_new))

(433)
糞坊主めとはがみをした。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (CP-THT (FRAG (NP (N 糞坊主め)))
                  (P と))
          (PP (NP (N はがみ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 116_aozora_Natsume-1908))

30.14.1   Questions as arguments

     CP-QUE arguments can appear as が-marked subjects and を- marked objects. They can also appear with the particle に.

(440)
わいせつ画像は、それそのものが問題なのではなく、それを誰が見るかが問題だと思う。
‘I think that opbscene oimages themselves are not the problem; who sees them is the problem.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N わいせつ)
                  (N 画像))
              (P は))
          (NP-TPC *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PRO それ)
                                          (PRN (NP (PRO そのもの))))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                  (NP-PRD (N 問題))
                                  (AX な)
                                  (P の)
                                  (AX で)
                                  (P は)
                                  (NEG なく))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO それ))
                                                  (P を))
                                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                              (PP (NP (WPRO 誰))
                                                  (P が))
                                              (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                              (VB 見る))
                                      (P か))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (NP-PRD (N 問題))
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB 思う)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 482_textbook_djg_advanced))

(441)
すなわち,国の言語としての観点からは,日本語が社会でどのように使われているかを研究し,その成果を日本語社会に還元することが重要です。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ すなわち)
          (PU ,)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP;{JAPANESE_LANG} (PP (NP;{JAPAN} (N 国))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N 言語))
                      (P として)
                      (P の))
                  (N 観点))
              (P から)
              (P は))
          (PU ,)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                          (IP-ADV;{RESEARCH_JAPANESE_LANG} (PP (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP;{JAPANESE_LANG} (N 日本語))
                                                                                   (P が))
                                                                               (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                                                               (PP (NP;{JAPANESE_SOCIETY} (N 社会))
                                                                                   (P で))
                                                                               (ADVP (WADV どのように))
                                                                               (VB 使わ)
                                                                               (PASS れ)
                                                                               (P て)
                                                                               (VB2 いる))
                                                                       (P か))
                                                               (P を))
                                                           (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                           (VB 研究)
                                                           (VB0 し))
                          (PU ,)
                          (PP (NP (D;{RESEARCH_JAPANESE_LANG} その)
                                  (N 成果))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (PP (NP;{JAPANESE_SOCIETY} (N 日本語社会))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 還元)
                          (VB0 する))
                  (N こと))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJN 重要)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 12_nonfiction_What_NINJAL_aspires_to))

     Bare CP-QUE can also appear as argument, in which case its role is specified with an extension. In the example below, particle が  is omitted, and so the extension -SBJ has been added.

(442)
こうした状況下での日本の自由化検討がどうなるのか、まだまだ未知数だが“自由化性善説”は根強い。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (CP-QUE-SBJ (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PP (NP (D こうした)
                                                          (N 状況下))
                                                      (P で)
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (PP (NP (NPR 日本))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (N 自由化検討))
                                              (P が))
                                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                          (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                          (VB なる)
                                          (P の))
                                  (P か))
                      (PU 、)
                      (ADVP (ADV まだまだ))
                      (NP-PRD (N 未知数))
                      (AX だ))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (QUOT “)
                  (N 自由化性善説)
                  (QUOT ”))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI 根強い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 22_newswire-closed_BCCWJ_28_PN1c_00012))

Grammar books say that all markings for grammatical role other than が and を are obligatory, but occasionally there are CP-QUE arguments with roles that take particles other than が  or を, but are nevertheless unmarked. In (443) the CP-QUE is the argument of 取りかかる, which normally takes a に-marked argument:

(443)
政治が目指す「価値」をどうとらえ直し、ポスト冷戦や、二十一世紀に密着した具体目標をどう定めるか、腰を据えて取りかかるときだ。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (CP-QUE-ADV (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                              (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                                                                      (PP (NP (N 政治))
                                                                          (P が))
                                                                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                                                      (VB 目指す))
                                                              (-LRB- 「)
                                                              (N 価値)
                                                              (-RRB- 」))
                                                          (P を))
                                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                      (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                                      (VB とらえ直し)
                                                      (PU 、))
                                              (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N ポスト冷戦))
                                                             (P や))
                                                      (PU 、)
                                                      (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二十一)
                                                                                  (CL 世紀)))
                                                                      (P に))
                                                                  (VB 密着)
                                                                  (VB0 し)
                                                                  (AXD た))
                                                          (N 具体目標)))
                                                  (P を))
                                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                              (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                              (VB 定める))
                                      (P か))
                          (PU 、)
                          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 腰))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 据え)
                                  (P て))
                          (SCON *)
                          (VB 取りかかる))
                  (N とき))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 9_newswire-locked_MAI-extra))

When followed by toritate particles, CP-QUE is disambiguated.

30.14.2   Adverbial quotes (CP-THT-ADV) and questions (CP-QUE-ADV)

     CP-THT and CP-QUE can appear under IP as adverbial elements when it is clear that they do not relate simply to their sister predicates as complements. it is marked as a an adjunct with extension -ADV. Even if the whole predication denotes an act of cognition or signification, when a lexical verb takes an overt object that does not denote any propositional content or significational material, an accompanying CP is marked as an adjunct: either CP-THT-ADV or CP-QUE-ADV. This also holds for idioms like 気を配る.

(444)
このとき、政宗自らが秀忠の前に膳を運んだのだが、そのとき秀忠側近の内藤正重が、「伊達殿に鬼見(毒見)をしてほしい」と声をかけた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV;{MASAMUNE_HIDETADA_SERVING} (NP-TMP (D;{MASAMUNE_HIDETADA_INVITATION} この)
                                                          (N とき))
                                                  (PU 、)
                                                  (PP (NP;{MASAMUNE} (NPR 政宗)
                                                                     (PRN (NP (PRO 自ら))))
                                                      (P が))
                                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                                  (PP (NP (PP (NP;{HIDETADA} (NPR 秀忠))
                                                              (P の))
                                                          (N 前))
                                                      (P に))
                                                  (PP (NP (N 膳))
                                                      (P を))
                                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                  (VB 運ん)
                                                  (AXD だ)
                                                  (P の)
                                                  (AX だ))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-TMP (D;{MASAMUNE_HIDETADA_SERVING} その)
                  (N とき))
          (PP (NP;{MASASHIGE} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (NP-PRD (N 秀忠側近))
                                      (AX の))
                              (NPR 内藤正重))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (PRN-1 (CP-THT (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                                 (NP-SBJ;{MASASHIGE} *speaker*)
                                 (PP (NP;{MASAMUNE} (NPR 伊達殿))
                                     (P に))
                                 (NP-OB1 *に*)
                                 (IP-SMC (PP (NP (N 鬼見)
                                                 (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                      (NP (N 毒見))
                                                      (-RRB- ))))
                                             (P を))
                                         (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                         (VB し)
                                         (P て))
                                 (ADJI ほしい)
                                 (-RRB- 」))
                         (P と)))
          (PP (NP (N 声)
                  (PRN *ICH*-1))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB かけ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 189_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

(445)
ミトでお世話になった女性通訳のグエン・レ・ホアさんは「南北送電線の開通で、デルタの無灯火村に電気が通じるようになりました」と中州の島を指さした。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                              (P *に*))
                          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (NPR ミト))
                              (P で))
                          (VB お世話)
                          (P に)
                          (VB2 なっ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (PP (NP (N 女性通訳))
                      (P の))
                  (NPR グエン・レ・ホアさん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-THT-ADV (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
                              (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 南北送電線))
                                                          (P の))
                                                      (N 開通))
                                                  (P で))
                                              (PU 、)
                                              (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR デルタ))
                                                          (P の))
                                                      (N 無灯火村))
                                                  (P に))
                                              (PP (NP (N 電気))
                                                  (P が))
                                              (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                              (VB 通じる))
                                      (N よう))
                                  (P に))
                              (NP-OB1 *に*)
                              (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                              (VB なり)
                              (AX まし)
                              (AXD た)
                              (-RRB- 」))
                      (P と))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 中州))
                      (P の))
                  (N 島))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 指さし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1020_newswire-closed_MAI_01_950101))

(446)
わあい。」と一郎がいちばんうしろからあまりさわぐものを一人ずつしかりました。

( (IP-MAT (CP-THT-ADV (INTJP (INTJ わあい)
                             (PU 。)
                             (-RRB- 」))
                      (P と))
          (PP (NP (NPR 一郎))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (ADV いちばん)
                  (N うしろ))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADVP (ADV あまり))
                          (VB さわぐ))
                  (N もの))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP;*OB1* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一人)))
                    (P ずつ))
          (VB しかり)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 123_aozora_Miyazawa-1934_a))

Whether or not an NP-OB1 is also present, when a bare CP-THT appears in a predication that does not itself denote an action of cognition or signification, an accompnying CP usually denotes an accompanying utterance or state of mind, and is marked as an adjunct.

(447)
じゃ、私の顔が見えるかいと一心に聞くと、見えるかいって、そら、そこに、写ってるじゃありませんかと、にこりと笑って見せた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                      (CP-THT (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                                              (CONJ じゃ)
                                              (PU 、)
                                              (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO 私))
                                                          (P の))
                                                      (N 顔))
                                                  (P が))
                                              (NP-OB1 *が*)
                                              (VB 見える))
                                      (P か)
                                      (P い))
                              (P と))
                      (PP (NP (N 一心))
                          (P に))
                      (VB 聞く))
              (P と))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT-ADV (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                        (INTJP (CP-THT (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                                                                       (NP-OB1 *hearer*)
                                                                       (VB 見える))
                                                               (P か)
                                                               (P い))
                                                       (P って)))
                                        (PU 、)
                                        (INTJ そら)
                                        (PU 、)
                                        (PP (NP (PRO そこ))
                                            (P に))
                                        (PU 、)
                                        (VB 写っ)
                                        (VB2 てる)
                                        (AX じゃ)
                                        (VB2 あり)
                                        (AX ませ)
                                        (NEG ん))
                                (P か))
                      (P と))
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV にこりと))
          (VB 笑っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 見せ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 18_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(448)
「誰だ!」と甚内が振り返る。

( (IP-MAT (CP-THT-ADV (CP-QUE (-LRB- 「)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                      (NP-PRD (WPRO 誰))
                                      (AX だ))
                              (PU !)
                              (-RRB- 」))
                      (P と))
          (PP (NP (NPR 甚内))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 振り返る)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 254_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

(449)
63議席が勝敗ラインだが、首相は「捕らぬ狸の皮算用だ。やってみないと分からない」と慎重だ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 63)
                                      (CL 議席)))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (NP-PRD (N 勝敗ライン))
                      (AX だ))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 首相))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-THT-ADV (multi-sentence (-LRB- 「)
                                      (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                              (NP-PRD (N 捕らぬ狸の皮算用))
                                              (AX だ)
                                              (PU 。))
                                      (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                              (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                                          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                                          (VB やっ)
                                                          (P て)
                                                          (VB2 み)
                                                          (NEG ない))
                                                  (P と))
                                              (CND *)
                                              (VB 分から)
                                              (NEG ない))
                                      (-RRB- 」))
                      (P と))
          (ADJN 慎重)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 48_newswire-closed_BCCWJ_18_PN1b_00005))

     As with CP-THT, there are examples of CP-QUE that are clearly not complements of their sister predicates. Accordingly they are marked CP-QUE-ADV. A typical example is in (450) forming a reason clause:

(450)
たとえば、紅茶を入れたのに、どういうわけか、コーヒーを入れたと勘違いしてしまう。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{PERSON_8} *arb*)
          (ADVP (ADV たとえば))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 紅茶))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 入れ)
                      (AXD た))
              (P のに))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-QUE-ADV (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{PERSON_8} *pro*)
                              (CP-QUE-ADV (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                                                  (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                                                  (VB いう))
                                                          (N わけ)))
                                          (P か))
                              (PU 、)
                              (PP (NP (N コーヒー))
                                  (P を))
                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                              (VB 入れ)
                              (AXD た))
                      (P と))
          (VB 勘違い)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 しまう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 8_nonfiction_PB12_00001))

     There are cases where a question is adverbial, but is more closely related to the predication than a reason clause. The example in (451) has an overt を-marked argument, but also contains a CP-QUE (which cannot be case-marked in this context). Although the CP-QUE might be allowed as a complement of the predicate under different circumstances, here it is marked CP-QUE-ADV.

(451)
間違いがないかどうか、書類をよく見直してください.

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (CP-QUE-ADV (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 間違い))
                                  (P が))
                              (NP-SBJ *が*)
                              (ADJI ない))
                      (P か)
                      (WADV どう)
                      (P か))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 書類))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (ADVP (ADV よく))
          (VB;{見直す.01} 見直し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 ください)
          (PU .))
  (ID 3069_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

30.14.3   Appositional quotes and questions

     In addition to the patterns discussed above, there are instances of utterance-level constituents that seem to be closely related to the contents of the arguments as well as to the meanings of the predicates, but are not necessarily adjacent to the arguments in question.

     In the case of CP-QUE specifically, an overt argument is headed by a relational noun that is interpreted as a concealed question. Although the two constituents are semantically equivalent, here is no adjancency condition between the CP-QUE-ADV and the argument, so a structural relation indicating apposition is not sufficient to describe the pattern. In order to indicate this relation, a parenthetical expression PRN is introduced together with the argument, and the CP is related to that position through the use if (*ICH*-1). This is the case for both CP-QUE and CP-THT.

(452)
芸術界で今何が起こっているか動向が分かるとされるものでした

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (PRN-1 (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 芸術界))
                                                     (P で))
                                                 (NP-TMP (N 今))
                                                 (PP (NP (WPRO 何))
                                                     (P が))
                                                 (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                                 (VB 起こっ)
                                                 (P て)
                                                 (VB2 いる))
                                         (P か)))
                          (PP (NP (N 動向)
                                  (PRN *ICH*-1))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 分かる)
                          (P と)
                          (VB2 さ)
                          (PASS れる))
                  (N もの))
          (AX でし)
          (AXD た))
  (ID 20_translated_TED_0-SheaHembrey_2011))

     CP-THT is also paired with object NPs that denote propositional content or significational material. The treatment is the same as for CP-QUE:

(453)
やんちゃで済まされないことが多く、地域の方からは、震災後から荒れるようになったと話を聞きます。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (N やんちゃ))
                                      (P で))
                                  (VB 済まさ)
                                  (PASS れ)
                                  (NEG ない))
                          (N こと))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (ADJI 多く))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 地域))
                      (P の))
                  (N 方))
              (P から)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PRN-1 (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                 (PP (NP (N 震災後))
                                     (P から))
                                 (PP (NP (IP-EMB (VB 荒れる))
                                         (N よう))
                                     (P に))
                                 (NP-OB1 *に*)
                                 (VB なっ)
                                 (AXD た))
                         (P と)))
          (PP (NP (N 話)
                  (PRN *ICH*-1))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 聞き)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 102_newswire_KAHOKU_00037_K201403080A0T10XX00001))

(454)
「えい!」と初めて声を掛け、右手寄りにツツ――と詰める。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PRN-1 (CP-THT (INTJP (-LRB- 「)
                                        (INTJ えい)
                                        (PU !)
                                        (-RRB- 」))
                                 (P と)))
                  (ADVP (ADV 初めて))
                  (PP (NP (N 声)
                          (PRN *ICH*-1))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 掛け))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 右手寄り))
              (P に))
          (ADVP (ADV ツツ――と))
          (VB 詰める)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 128_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

     In (455) there is a very interesting example where the argument is not an overt NP but rather a trace in a relative clause.

(455)
この時庄太郎はふと気がついて、向うを見ると、遥の青草原の尽きる辺から幾万匹か数え切れぬ豚が、群をなして一直線に、この絶壁の上に立っている庄太郎を目懸けて鼻を鳴らしてくる。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (NP-TMP (D この)
                              (N 時))
                      (PP (NP (NPR 庄太郎))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV ふと))
                              (VB 気がつい)
                              (P て))
                      (CONJ *)
                      (PU 、)
                      (PP (NP (N 向う))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 見る))
              (P と))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (N 遥))
                          (AX の))
                  (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 青草原))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ *の*)
                          (VB 尽きる))
                  (N 辺))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*
                                  (PRN *ICH*-1))
                          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PRN-1 (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (WNUM 幾万)
                                                                 (CL 匹)))
                                                 (AX *))
                                         (P か)))
                          (VB 数え)
                          (VB2 切れ)
                          (NEG ぬ))
                  (N 豚))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 群))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB なし)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 一直線))
              (P に))
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (D この)
                                                  (N 絶壁))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N 上))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 立っ)
                                  (P て)
                                  (VB2 いる))
                          (NPR 庄太郎))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 目懸け)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 鼻))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 鳴らし)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (VB くる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 620_aozora_Natsume-1908))

30.14.4   Volitional adjuncts

These instances of CP-THT generally contain either (MD う・よう) or (NEG まい) and accompany predicates that don't involve cognition or signification. They are annotated with the extension -PRP (a special kind of -ADV):

(456)
ゆっくり歩こう、と持ちまえの呑気さを取り返し、好きな小歌をいい声で歌い出した。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PRN-1 (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                         (ADVP (ADV ゆっくり))
                                         (VB 歩こ)
                                         (MD う))
                                 (PU 、)
                                 (P と)))
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 持ちまえ))
                              (P の))
                          (N 呑気さ)
                          (PRN *ICH*-1))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 取り返し))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (ADJN 好き)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 小歌))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI いい))
                  (N 声))
              (P で))
          (VB 歌い出し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 200_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

(457)
僕は僕を子供だとほのめかしたコターのじいさんに腹を立てていたけれども、彼が言い終えなかったセンテンスから意味を引き出そうと頭を悩ましていた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 僕))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                      (PP (NP (PRO 僕))
                                                          (P を))
                                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                      (CP-THT (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 子供))
                                                                      (AX だ))
                                                              (P と))
                                                      (VB ほのめかし)
                                                      (AXD た))
                                              (NPR コター))
                                      (AX の))
                              (N じいさん))
                          (P に))
                      (PP (NP (N 腹))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 立て)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 い)
                      (AXD た))
              (P けれども))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT-PRP (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                              (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                                              (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
                                                  (P が))
                                              (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                              (VB 言い)
                                              (VB2 終え)
                                              (NEG なかっ)
                                              (AXD た))
                                      (N センテンス))
                                  (P から))
                              (PP (NP (N 意味))
                                  (P を))
                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                              (VB 引き出そ)
                              (MD う))
                      (P と))
          (PP (NP (N 頭))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 悩まし)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 63_aozora_Joyce-1914))

(458)
マラソンは苦しかったが、友達に遅れまいと一所懸命走った。
‘The marathon was very hard; determined that I wasn't going to fall behind my friends, I ran the best I could.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N マラソン))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (ADJI 苦しかっ)
                      (AXD た))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (CP-THT-PRP (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 友達))
                                  (P に))
                              (VB 遅れ)
                              (MD まい))
                      (P と))
          (ADVP (ADV 一所懸命))
          (VB 走っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1028_textbook_particles))

30.15   Raising-to-object constructions

In a raising to object construction the logical subject of a complement clause (either a complementizer clause or a small clause) is typically marked with particle を and occupies a position in the matrix clause (sibling to the predicate that selects the complement clause).

30.15.1   Raising out of complementizer clauses

In this scenario the quoted material is put inside an IP-SMC dominated by CP-THT (a control environment), and the matrix NP-OB1 controls the subject position in the IP-SMC.

(459)
自分はこの言葉を面白いと思った。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 言葉))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (ADJI 面白い))
                  (P と))
          (VB 思っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 373_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(460)
警察はAを犯人だと断定した。
‘The police affirmed A to be the criminal.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 警察))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR A))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 犯人))
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB 断定)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1095_textbook_kisonihongo))

While the matrix predicate is tyically an attitude verb such as 思う or 考える, verbs like する and 扱う can also support this construction.

(461)
温度を一定だとする

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{SPEAKER_30} *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N 温度))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 一定))
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB する))
  (ID 30_misc_EXAMPLE))

These constructions can also be passivized. In such scenarios the embedded clause is placed in IP-SMC so that the control relation holds, just as in the active voice scenarios.

(462)
温度は一定だとされる

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 温度))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N 一定))
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB さ)
          (PASS れる))
  (ID 31_misc_EXAMPLE))

(463)
招き猫の置物は、幸運を招き込むと言われます.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 招き猫))
                      (P の))
                  (N 置物))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (PP (NP (N 幸運))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB;{招き込む.01} 招き込む))
                  (P と))
          (VB 言わ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AX ます)
          (PU .))
  (ID 2991_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

30.15.2   Raising out of small clauses

In this scenario the predicate in the small clause is limited to being either an い-adjective, an adjective-inflecting modal, or a copular expression, which must be in the infinitive inflection.

(464)
お手伝いできないのを心苦しく思います。
‘It pains me to think that I cannot help you .’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                          (VB お手伝い)
                          (VB0 でき)
                          (FRAME (LU *503137,503204,511309,511316,511317,511350,521181*))
                          (NEG ない)
                          (FRAME (LU *521931,521933,521935*)))
                  (N の))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-SMC (ADJI 心苦しく)
                  (FRAME (LU *517979,517980*)))
          (VB 思い)
          (FRAME (LU *505994,508905,508906,508950,508951,513555,515810,515812,515813,515814*))
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 697_textbook_purple_basic))

(465)
彼らの出身の村や町には、戦死者を名誉に思って祈念碑が建立されるでしょう。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO 彼ら))
                              (P の))
                          (N 出身))
                      (P の))
                  (NML (CONJP (NP (N 村))
                              (P や))
                       (NP (N 町))))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 戦死者))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (IP-SMC (ADJN 名誉)
                          (AX に))
                  (VB 思っ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 祈念碑))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 建立)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れる)
          (MD でしょう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 280_aozora_Hayashida-2015))

These constructions frequently show up with predicates in the spontaneous (ら)れる  form or in the potential form.

(171)
その間が、たっぷり一時間はあった様に思われます。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (D その)
                  (N 間))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (ADVP (ADV たっぷり))
                                  (PP;*SBJ* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                                        (CL 時間)))
                                            (P は))
                                  (VB あっ)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (N 様))
                  (AX に))
          (VB 思わ)
          (VB2 れ)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 249_aozora_Edogawa-1929))

(467)
親不知の断崖を通過する頃、車内の電燈と空の明るさとが同じに感じられた程、夕闇が迫って来た。

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 親不知))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 断崖))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 通過)
                          (VB0 する))
                  (N 頃))
          (PU 、)
          (NP-ADV (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (PP (NP (N 車内))
                                                 (P の))
                                             (N 電燈))
                                         (P と))
                                  (NP (PP (NP (N 空))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 明るさ))
                                  (P と))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-OB1 *が*)
                          (IP-SMC (ADJN 同じ)
                                  (AX に))
                          (VB 感じ)
                          (VB2 られ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 程))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 夕闇))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 迫っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 来)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 37_aozora_Edogawa-1929))


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