Section 29
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29   Quantification

This section looks at the family of expressions that are headed by elements used for quantification. These elements are broadly divided into three categories: (i) Elements that don't involve numerals and can function independently as quantifying are tagged as Q. (ii) Elements that involve numerals are grouped under NUMCLP (see section 29.2). (iii) Indeterminate (WH-) words that function quantificationally when paired with either も  or か comprise a third category (see section 29.3). We take each of these up in turn.

29.1   Expressions with Q

The words that form the basis of independent quantifying expressions without numerals are labeled Q. Qs always project an NP level. Qs have quantificational force when they are associated with a “host noun (phrase)”, and their contribution to the meaning of the sentence is to express either quantifying (expressing a number or measure of the host itself), or partitive (expressing a proportion of a whole entity denoted by the host). The factors deciding between the two interpretations include (i) the definiteness/specificity of the host, (ii) the syntactic relation between the Q expression and the host, and (iii) the nature of Q. In the example below, the quantifying expression すべて is associated with a host NP-OB1 宝石を by the addition of binding information ‘;*OB1*’:

(323)
泥棒は店から宝石をすべて奪い去った.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 泥棒))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 店))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (N 宝石))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (NP;*OB1* (Q すべて))
          (VB;{奪い去る.01} 奪い去っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 338_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

Here is a list of items identified as quantifiers in the corpus:

倍, 1つ1つ, いたる, いっさい, かなり, すべて, それぞれ, たいてい, たくさん, だれ一人, ちょっと, とも, ともに, ひとつひとつ, ほとんど, みな, みなさま, みんな, めいめい, よろず, トータル, 一つ一つ, 一ぱい, 一人一人, 一切, 一同, 一杯, 一部, 両方, 両社, 何一つ, 全, 全体, 全員, 全部, 共に, 半ば, 半分, 半数, 双方, 各, 各々, 各種, 同士, 同志, 多少, 多数, 大ぜい, 大分, 大勢, 大半, 大抵, 大部分, 大量, 少し, 少量, 幾分, 幾多, 数々, 数多, 数多く, 殆ど, 沢山, 無数, 皆, 皆さん, 皆様, 約半分, 総て, 色々, 若干名, 複数, 誰一人

This list of Qs can be further categorised as follows:

     Qs do not always head expressions that are associated with a host noun (phrase). Some of them can be interpreted as heading referring expressions. Some of them (e.g., distributive items) can be interpreted as heading adverbial expressions. See section 29.1.5 for details. The distinction is sometimes clear from the syntactic configuration, but not always. Accordingly, quantifying expressions are always accompanied by binding information, in one of three forms: As part of a constituent modifying an N head of NP, a quantifying NP will be marked with binding information ‘;*’ indicating that it quantifies a host local to a superordinate NP. As part of a constituent separate from a “host noun phrase”, if the host is, for example, a subject NP within a PP headed by が, a quantifying NP will be marked to specify its host, for example NP;*SBJ*. As an argument in a partitive relation with a preceding topicalised “superset” NP, the Q expression is treated as any other argument, but the “superset” NP is associated with a Possessor position in the argument by use of a special notation convention and binding information on a null pronoun:

(324)
集合は半分が駄目だ

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{WHOLE_47} (N 集合))
              (P は)
              (P ***))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP;{WHOLE_47} *pro*)
                      (P *の*))
                  (Q 半分))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJN 駄目)
          (AX だ))
  (ID 47_misc_EXAMPLE))

     Adverbial expressions are marked up with either NP-MSR, NP-TMP or NP-ADV, the latter being for an adverbial relation that is neither -MSR nor -TMP.

29.1.1   Prenominal expressions with Q

Prenominal expressions of the form [Q + の] present the need to choose one of three different analyses, depending on whether the expression is referring or quantifying. Consider example (325) below. By itself, the expression 両方のチーム is semantically ambiguous. For the interpretation “both teams”, the expression with Q is quantifying. For the interpretation “the teams(s) of both (entities)”, the expression with Q is referring. Only reference to context can decide which interpretation is the appropriate one to capture with annotation. For the example under discussion, the predicate 攻め合う ‘attack each other’ provides enough context to establish that the Q expression 両方 is quantifying with universal force. In this usage, [Q + の] forms a PP;* structure:

(325)
両方のチームが攻め合った.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q 両方))
                        (P の))
                  (N チーム))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB;{攻め合う.01} 攻め合っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 1413_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

In a usage where the Q-expression is referring, the same string would be assigned the same PP structure, only without ‘;*’: (NP (PP (NP (Q 両方) の) (N チーム)).

     A variation on the quantificational force in the example above is distributive quantification, as in the example below.

(326)
津波の爪痕を目に焼き付け、体験談をそれぞれの地元に持ち帰る

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 津波))
                              (P の))
                          (N 爪痕))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (PP (NP (N 目))
                      (P に))
                  (VB 焼き付け))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 体験談))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q それぞれ))
                        (P の))
                  (N 地元))
              (P に))
          (VB 持ち帰る))
  (ID 62_newswire_KAHOKU_00039_K201403130A0T10XX00001))

The example below contains a Q that is proper subset proportional: 一部.

(327)
この音楽は一部の人々に熱狂的に支持されている。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 音楽))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q 一部))
                        (P の))
                  (N 人々))
              (P に))
          (NP-LGS *に*)
          (ADVP (ADJN 熱狂的)
                (AX に))
          (VB 支持)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 57_misc_EXAMPLE))

The example below contains a Q that can be weakly quantifying. In this example the whole NP has non-specific reference.

(328)
空には無数の星がきらめいていた。
‘Countless stars were twinkling in the sky .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 空))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q 無数))
                        (P の))
                  (N 星))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB きらめい)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 640_textbook_TANAKA))

     There is another possibility, most common with NUMCLPs rather than Qs, where the NUMCLP expression attributes a property to the modified N according to a measurement of some dimension of that N. Thus the expression 9人のチーム in reference to baseball attributes a property to the team according to the number of players. In this usage the quantifying expression is annotated as a (NP-PRD ...) (AX の) sequence heading an IP-REL.

29.1.2   Appositive expressions with Q

There is a configuration in which a host NP is immediately followed by a Q expression. The pair may be marked by a particle, or may form an NP-PRD. NPs so formed are regularly specific in reference. Weakly quantifying Qs don't seem to appear in this configuration (but NUMCLPs do quite frequently). In these usages the quantifying expression is annotated under a PRN which is placed under the host NP. Furthermore, binding information is added to the NP to indicate its relationship with the host: (NP (NP N host) (PRN (NP;* (Q quantifier)))).

(329)
初の仙台公演ではビゼーの華麗な音楽に彩られた名作「カルメン」全4幕を上演します。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (N 初))
                          (AX の))
                  (N 仙台公演))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PRN (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                   (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR ビゼー))
                                               (P の))
                                           (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                   (ADJN 華麗)
                                                   (AX な))
                                           (N 音楽))
                                       (P に))
                                   (VB 彩ら)
                                   (PASS れ)
                                   (AX た))
                           (N 名作)))
                  (-LRB- 「)
                  (NPR カルメン)
                  (-RRB- 」)
                  (PRN (NP (Q 全)
                           (NUMCLP (NUM 4)
                                   (CL 幕)))))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 上演)
          (VB0 し)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 51_newswire_KAHOKU_00061_K201403090A0KI0XX00001))

(330)
京都駅では烏丸線、近鉄線双方のホームに乗り入れている。
‘At Kyoto station, the Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Line both use each other's platforms.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (NPR 京都駅))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NML (CONJP (NP (NPR 烏丸線)))
                               (PU 、)
                               (NP (NPR 近鉄線)))
                          (PRN (N (Q 双方))))
                      (P の))
                  (N ホーム))
              (P に))
          (VB 乗り入れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 34_wikipedia_KYOTO_19_RLW_00001))

(331)
彼らはこの有刺鉄線のトゲ全部に警告サインをつけました

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 彼ら))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NML (PP (NP (D この)
                               (N 有刺鉄線))
                           (P の))
                       (N トゲ))
                  (PRN (NP;* (Q 全部))))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (N 警告サイン))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB つけ)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た))
  (ID 168_translated_TED_0-SheaHembrey_2011))

29.1.3   Floating expressions with Q

Floating quantifiers are so called because they form clause-level constituents by themselves while at the same time quantifying a clause-level host NP. They are always quantifying and as such always specified by binding information such as ;*SBJ*, ;*OB1*, etc. to indicate which NP they are associated with.

     In general they are associated with arguments, and they are never marked with particles.

(332)
店には、人がいっぱいいる。
‘In the shop, there are a lot of people.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 店))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 人))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (Q いっぱい))
          (VB いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 103_textbook_kisonihongo))

(333)
彼女は夫の欠点をひとつひとつ言い立てた.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 彼女))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 夫))
                      (P の))
                  (N 欠点))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (NP;*OB1* (Q ひとつひとつ))
          (VB;{言い立てる.02} 言い立て)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 93_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

When a host noun phrase does not appear overtly in the sentence, its presence is indicated by a zero pronoun, as in the example below.

(334)
部長が、すべてうまく行くように取り計らってくれた.

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N 部長))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (NP;*SBJ* (Q すべて))
                          (ADVP (ADV うまく))
                          (VB 行く))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (VB;{取り計らう.01} 取り計らっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 くれ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 1977_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(335)
『みな私の手落ちだ!――

( (IP-MAT (-LRB- 『)
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (Q みな))
          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (PRO 私))
                      (P の))
                  (N 手落ち))
          (AX だ)
          (PU !――))
  (ID 220_aozora_Togawa-1937))

As the reference of zero pronouns is retrievable from discourse context, they are specific, and as a consequence a floating quantifier associated with a zero pronoun host takes on a partitive interpretation, with the host denoting a whole, and the Q expression denoting a part of the whole. A definite overt NP host would give the same effect as a quantified zero pronoun: 例の乾物をちょっと食べた ‘(They) ate a little bit of the dry goods.’

     When a weakly quantifying Q forms an expression associated with a host NP that is non-specific in reference, the extension of the host is limited by the quantifying expression: In an exchange such as the following, the host NP 乾物 has a non-specific reference and denotes a small amount of dry goods. Q: 何も無かったの? ‘Was there nothing at all?’ A: いや、乾物は少しあった。 ‘No, there was a little dry goods.’

     A specific host, a property-ascribing predicate, or particle-marking of a Q expression at IP level are each sufficient to trigger the partitive reading of the relationship between a Q expression and its host, but a particle-marked Q expression at IP-level is treated as a referring expression (see section 29.1.4 for details).

29.1.4   Referring expression with Q

When a Q expression that is particle-marked for a core grammatical role is paired with a specific host, the relation with the host is a partitive relation, but the Q expression is treated in the same way as any other sort of argument, i.e., as a referring expression. The host is marked with (P ***) and binding information. This allows the host to become an antecedent for null pronoun. A null pronoun is then introduced in the complement position to the NP projected by Q: (PP (NP (PP (NP;{WHOLE} *pro*)(P *の*)))).

(336)
自分たちはほとんどが次男坊ばかりですから」

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (PP (NP;{WHOLE} (PRO 自分たち))
                        (P は)
                        (P ***))
                    (NP-TPC *)
                    (PP (NP (PP (NP;{WHOLE} *pro*))
                            (Q ほとんど))
                        (P が))
                    (NP-SBJ *が*)
                    (NP-PRD (N 次男坊))
                    (P ばかり)
                    (AX です))
            (P から)
            (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 247_aozora_Hayashida-2015))

Context by itself can be sufficient grounds for treating a Q expression as independently referring rather than as quantifying, as has been briefly discussed in 29.1.1. Some Q expressions receive interpretations as referring by virtue of elements in the expressions themselves. In some expressions a strongly quantifying Q heads a clausal constituent and takes a D modifier or a definite NP complement that makes the reference definite. Expressions such as these can be treated as referring, so binding information linking to an overt or null element is not necessary. That is, they are independent of a host and aren't treated as quantifying. For example, in the sentence 著者はこれらのテーマのそれぞれに別々の章を立ている, the quantifier それぞれ takes a の-marked NP complement that serves to make the whole Q expression definite. In the corpus, the only weak quantifier that takes a の-marked NP complement is いろいろ. All the others are strongly quantifying.

There is a strong tendency for these referring expressions to be marked with core particles:

(337)
国内企業のすべてが週休二日制を導入している。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 国内企業))
                      (P の))
                  (Q すべて))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (N 週休二日制))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 導入)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 48_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

29.1.5   Host-less adverbial expressions with Q

Clausal constituent Q expressions (and more frequently NUMCLP expressions) can function as adverbs that don't quantify a host. This is most typical when the expression in question denotes duration, distance, or degree. In such cases the expression is not given binding information, but rather the NP is given identified as either an NP-ADV or NP-MSR:

(338)
尿道をつくる工程と似ていますがもう少し複雑です

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *speaker+pro*)
                                      (PP (NP (N 尿道))
                                          (P を))
                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                      (VB つくる))
                              (N 工程))
                          (P と))
                      (VB 似)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 い)
                      (AX ます))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (NP-ADV (ADV もう)
                  (Q 少し))
          (ADJN 複雑)
          (AX です))
  (ID 86_translated_TED_9-AnthonyAtala_2009P))

(205)
私は、もう少しここで待とう、と考えていた。
‘I was thinking I would wait here a little longer.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_1088} (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (NP-MSR (ADV もう)
                                  (Q 少し))
                          (PP (NP;{CURRENT_PLACE_1088} (PRO ここ))
                              (P で))
                          (VB 待と)
                          (MD う))
                  (PU 、)
                  (P と))
          (VB 考え)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1088_textbook_kisonihongo))

29.2   Expressions with NUMCLP

Quantifying expressions containing a numeral (NUM) or indeterminate numeral (WNUM) are labeled NUMCLPs. NUMCPs are typically composed of a NUM or WNUM paired with a classifier (CL), but there are examples having only NUM or only WNUM See section 15 for details.

     NUMCLPs always project an NP, just as quantifiers (Qs) do. Within the NP that contains NUMCLP, the elements that can precede NUMCLP are such things as adverbs (ADV)s modifying the NUMCLP, nouns (N), determiners (D), quantifiers (Q), postpositional phrases (PP), relative clauses (IP-REL), gappless noun-modifying clauses (IP-EMB). In the examples below, ADV, N, D, Q, PP, IP-REL, and IP-EMB appear.

(340)
ジョーンズはもう一枚の契約書に署名した。
‘Jones signed another contract.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ジョーンズ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (ADV もう)
                            (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL 枚)))
                        (P の))
                  (N 契約書))
              (P に))
          (VB 署名)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1040_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(341)
この店は朝7時から営業している。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SHOP_219} (D この)
                             (N 店))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 朝)
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 7)
                          (CL 時)))
              (P から))
          (VB 営業)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 219_textbook_kisonihongo))

(342)
この3年間は消費が冷え込んでいる.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 3)
                          (CL 年間)))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PP (NP (N 消費))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB;{冷え込む.02} 冷え込ん)
          (P で)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU .))
  (ID 2499_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(343)
完成したマップは、A4サイズで全14ページ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (VB 完成)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N マップ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (NP-PRD (N A4サイズ))
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (NP-PRD (Q 全)
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 14)
                          (CL ページ)))
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 12_newswire_KAHOKU_00033_K201402110A0T30XX00001))

(344)
がらんとした旅館の一室。

( (FRAG (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                    (PP (ADVP (ADV がらん))
                        (P と))
                    (VB し)
                    (AX た))
            (PP (NP (N 旅館))
                (P の))
            (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                    (CL 室)))
        (PU 。))
  (ID 20_aozora_Kajii-1925))

(345)
支援活動などに携わる4人に連載を振り返ってもらい、あらためて考える。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (N 支援活動))
                                      (P など)
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 携わる))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 4)
                                  (CL 人)))
                      (P に))
                  (NP-OB1 *に*)
                  (IP-SMC (PP (NP (N 連載))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 振り返っ)
                          (P て))
                  (VB もらい))
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV あらためて))
          (VB 考える)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 6_newswire_KAHOKU_00055_K201406190A0T10XX00201))

(346)
各店も対策に追われる1年になるだろう。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (QN 各店))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (N 対策))
                              (P に))
                          (NP-LGS *に*)
                          (VB 追わ)
                          (PASS れる))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 1)
                          (CL 年)))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB なる)
          (MD だろう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 62_newswire_KAHOKU_00113_K201401010A0F90XX00001))

For discussion of examples where an expression with NUMCLP is immediately preceded by an NP and that NP is the host of the expression with NUMCLP, see section 29.2.2.

     Within an NP containing a NUMCLP, the items that can follow the NUMCLP are N and NPR. Among the sort of Ns that frequently occupy this position are such items as:

前 (まえ),後,中 (じゅう),すぎ,以前,以降,以後,以来,以上,以下,以内,以外,ごと,ぶり,おき,頃 (ごろ),代,余,余り (あまり),超,程度,あたり,当たり,位 (ぐらい),近く,手前,強,弱,前後,午前,前半,後半,分 (ぶん)。

(347)
太郎は5時前に帰宅した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 5)
                          (CL 時))
                  (N 前))
              (P に))
          (VB 帰宅)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1533_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(348)
一年分の日記を見返した.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL 年))
                            (N 分))
                        (P の))
                  (N 日記))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB;{見返す.02} 見返し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 3018_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

Below are examples of Ns and NPRs following NUMCLP that aren't listed above.

がかり,共,化,台,期,上旬,下旬,中旬,前半,前後,初め,初頭,午前,午後,半ば,弱,後半,未明,未満,末,程度,終わり,込み,近く,過ぎ,限り,ご宿泊,クラス,シリーズ,チェックアウト,チキン,バッター,ビーフ,フロアー,ブース,リーグ,一体,一般会計補正予算,乗り,予算,予約,事件,五輪,付,住,体制,側,先,児,公演,共同,出口,出発,到着,割当,勝負,区,千日手,単位,卯の刻,名人,名人戦,問題,国会,圏,土曜日,増,増し,壁,夏,夕,夕刻,夜,大会,宗主,定期演奏会,室,宿泊,将軍,差,平均,年度末,建て,当主,必着,惨殺,手前,持将棋,提案,政党,早朝,星,春,時点,月曜日,朝,朝刊,朝食,札,柱,検査,機,比,河川,法律,法案,減,火曜日,王,現在,生まれ,産品,産業,産業化,用,発,相当,県,着,秋,税,級,経済,続き,総予算,編成,街,補正予算,規模,計画,設置,語,調査,走者,足,連敗,連続,選手,部分,部屋,都市,金曜日,間,間隔,障害,需要期

(349)
札は十円札らしい。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 札))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 十)
                          (CL 円))
                  (N 札))
          (AX *)
          (MD らしい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 508_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(350)
花子は一次試験に合格しただけだった。
‘Hanako only passed the primary examination.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{HANAKO_804} (NPR 花子))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                      (CL 次))
                              (N 試験))
                          (P に))
                      (VB 合格)
                      (VB0 し)
                      (AXD た))
              (P だけ))
          (NP-PRD *)
          (AX だっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 804_textbook_kisonihongo))

     The NPs that NUMCLPs project can form coordinated structures. In the example below the conjunctive particle か attaches to the first NP dominating NUMCLP. The example after that the first NP dominating NUMCLP is under a CONJP without a heading P.

(351)
たとえばこのあいだも二晩か三晩かかって小さな額ぶちをつくりました。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (ADVP (ADV たとえば))
          (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N あいだ))
              (P も))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (NP-MSR (CONJP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二)
                                             (CL 晩)))
                                 (P か))
                          (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 三)
                                      (CL 晩))))
                  (VB かかっ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (PNL 小さな)
                  (N 額ぶち))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB つくり)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 196_aozora_Harada-1960_a))

(352)
自分はこう云う風に一つ二つと勘定して行くうちに、赤い日をいくつ見たか分らない。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                          (PP (NP (D こう云う)
                                                  (N 風))
                                              (P に))
                                          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                                                     (CL つ))))
                                                  (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二)
                                                              (CL つ))))
                                              (P と))
                                          (VB 勘定)
                                          (VB0 し)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 行く))
                                  (N うち))
                              (P に))
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJI 赤い))
                                  (N 日))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (NP;*OB1* (NUMCLP (WNUM いく)
                                            (CL つ)))
                          (VB 見)
                          (AXD た))
                  (P か))
          (VB 分ら)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 64_aozora_Natsume-1908))

Sequences of NUMCLP expressions that can't be analyzed as coordinations are marked up as sisters under on NP.

(353)
さわやかな九月一日の朝でした。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN さわやか)
                          (AX な))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 九)
                                  (CL 月))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                  (CL 日)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 朝))
          (AX でし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 16_aozora_Miyazawa-1934_a))

(354)
六時半にW君が来た。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 六)
                          (CL 時))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 半)))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (NPR W君))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 来)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 111_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

(355)
「それを一枚一枚はがして、貧しい人にあげなさい。

( (IP-IMP (-LRB- 「)
          (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (PRO それ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-ADV (NP;*OB1* (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL 枚))
                            (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL 枚)))
                  (VB はがし)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI 貧しい))
                  (N 人))
              (P に))
          (VB あげ)
          (VB2 なさい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 271_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

29.2.1   Prenominal expressions with NUMCLP

When the NP that a NUMCLP projects is followed by の and modifies a N, there are three possible analyses, depending on the relationship between the modifying NP and a modified N. See section 29.1.1 for details.

     The first scenario is one where the NP projected by NUMCLP functions as an actual quantifier. In this scenario, の is a P projecting a PP, and furthermore, that PP label is extended with “;*”. (We need to expand on the function of ;* marking.)

(356)
二人の剣豪はお互いに剣を突き返した.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二人)))
                        (P の))
                  (N 剣豪))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PRO お互い))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (N 剣))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB;{突き返す.02} 突き返し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 1660_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

The following are examples where the quantifying NUMCLP expression denotes not a cardinality but a proportion:

(357)
岩手と宮城が持ち直しつつあるものの、各県とも5~7割の企業が震災前の水準を回復しておらず厳しい状況が続く。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (NPR 岩手))
                                     (P と))
                              (NP (NPR 宮城)))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (VB 持ち直し)
                      (AX つつある))
              (P ものの))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (QN 各県))
              (P とも))
          (NP-LOC *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 5~7)
                                            (CL 割)))
                                (P の))
                          (N 企業))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 震災前))
                              (P の))
                          (N 水準))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 回復)
                  (VB0 し)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 おら)
                  (NEG ず))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI 厳しい))
                  (N 状況))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 続く)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 14_newswire_KAHOKU_00090_K201403040A0T10XX00001))

(358)
この1956年にアメリカで行われた調査では30%の人が人生が非常に幸せだと答えています

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1956)
                                          (CL 年)))
                              (P に))
                          (PP (NP (NPR アメリカ))
                              (P で))
                          (VB 行わ)
                          (PASS れ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 調査))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 30)
                                    (CL %)))
                        (P の))
                  (N 人))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (PP (NP (N 人生))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (ADVP (ADJN 非常)
                                (AX に))
                          (ADJN 幸せ)
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB 答え)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AX ます))
  (ID 21_translated_TED_3-MihalyCsikszentmihalyi_2004))

The second scenario is one where the NP projected by NUMCLP attributes a property to N such as size, order in a series, etc. In this scenario NUMCLP is analysed as the head of an NP-PRD, and の is a copula heading an IP-REL or IP-EMB.

(359)
すべての四本足の哺乳類は四本足の動物だ。
‘Every four-legged mammal is a four-legged animal.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (Q すべて))
                        (P の))
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 四)
                                          (CL 本))
                                  (N 足))
                          (AX の))
                  (N 哺乳類))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 四)
                                          (CL 本))
                                  (N 足))
                          (AX の))
                  (N 動物))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1323_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(360)
不意に第二のアイディアが起こった。

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADJN 不意)
                (AX に))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 第二)))
                      (P の))
                  (N アイディア))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 起こっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 134_aozora_Kajii-1925))

(361)
組織の損傷が1cm以上の場合どうすれば良いのでしょうか?

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker+pro*)
                  (NP-TMP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 組織))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N 損傷))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                  (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 1)
                                                  (CL cm))
                                          (N 以上))
                                  (AX の))
                          (N 場合))
                  (ADVP (WADV どう))
                  (VB すれ)
                  (MD ば良い)
                  (P の)
                  (AX でしょ)
                  (MD う))
          (P か)
          (PU ?))
  (ID 63_translated_TED_9-AnthonyAtala_2009P))

In the third scenario, the NP projected by NUMCLP is a referring expression:

(362)
運命が二人の仲を引き裂いた.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 運命))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二人)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 仲))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB;{引き裂く.02} 引き裂い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 2537_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(363)
自分はその一つの前へ来て腰をおろした。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                                  (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                          (CL つ)))
                              (P の))
                          (N 前))
                      (P へ))
                  (VB 来)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 腰))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB おろし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 458_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(364)
二月十七日の晩であった。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 二)
                                  (CL 月))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 十七)
                                  (CL 日)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 晩))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 28_aozora_Mori-1912))

Note that these can take the same sort of modifiers that nouns do:

(365)
連携する13団体の多様な視点も反映された。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (VB 連携)
                                  (VB0 する))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 13)
                                  (CL 団体)))
                      (P の))
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 多様)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 視点))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 反映)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 41_newswire_KAHOKU_00033_K201402110A0T30XX00001))

29.2.2   Appositive expressions with NUMCLP

When a nominal phrase projected by NUMCLP immediately follows NP (or NML), and a grammatical role particle attaches to it, the two nominal phrases are in an appositive relationship. The latter NP is placed under PRN.

(366)
ポルトガルの代表者数人が主要な全国紙に結果を発表した。
‘Several Portuguese delegates got the results published in major national newspapers.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR ポルトガル))
                      (P の))
                  (N 代表者)
                  (PRN (NP;* (NUMCLP (NUM 数)
                                     (CL 人)))))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 主要)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 全国紙))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (N 結果))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 発表)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 773_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(367)
宮城県内外の自治体職員や企業の防災担当者ら40人が参加。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 宮城県内外))
                      (P の))
                  (NML (CONJP (NP (N 自治体職員))
                              (P や))
                       (NP (PP (NP (N 企業))
                               (P の))
                           (N 防災担当者)))
                  (N ら)
                  (PRN (NP;* (NUMCLP (NUM 40)
                                     (CL 人)))))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 参加)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 12_newswire_KAHOKU_00034_K201404110A0T30XX00001))

(368)
関ヶ原の戦いの翌年1601年、政宗は新たな居城仙台城を築城すると、仙台の地に人口約5万人の城下町を築いた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (PP (NP (NPR 関ヶ原の戦い))
                      (P の))
                  (N 翌年)
                  (PRN (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1601)
                                   (CL 年)))))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (NPR 政宗))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PRN (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                               (ADJN 新た)
                                               (AX な))
                                       (N 居城)))
                              (NPR 仙台城))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 築城)
                      (VB0 する))
              (P と))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 仙台))
                      (P の))
                  (N 地))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 人口)
                          (PRN (NP;* (NUMCLP (NUM 約5万)
                                             (CL 人)))))
                      (P の))
                  (N 城下町))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 築い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 117_wikipedia_Sendai_City))

When a NUMCLP is followed by a parenthetical NUMCLP, the latter is analysed as projecting a PRN.

(369)
1926年(大正15年)に仙台市電が開業した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1926)
                          (CL 年)
                          (PRN (-LRB- ()
                               (NP (NPR 大正)
                                   (NUMCLP (NUM 15)
                                           (CL 年)))
                               (-RRB- )))))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (NPR 仙台市電))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 開業)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 157_wikipedia_Sendai_City))

Note well: Binding information ;* is added to the NP under PRN to indicate its relationship with the host NP.

29.2.3   Floating expressions with NUMCLP

Numeral classifier expressions can float. In that scenario, the NP host of the NP projected by NUMCLP is marked with binding information. In each of the following examples, binding information of the form *SBJ* or *OB1* is added associating the numeral-classifier expression with the host by means of the grammatical role of the host.

(370)
台所にお酒が二升あった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 台所))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP;{DAZAI_LIQUOR_2_SHO} (N お酒))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (NUM 二)
                            (CL 升)))
          (VB あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 103_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

(371)
傍らにあるタンブラーには、枯れたスミレが一束刺してある。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 傍ら))
                              (P に))
                          (VB ある))
                  (N タンブラー))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (VB 枯れ)
                          (AX た))
                  (N スミレ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                            (CL 束)))
          (VB 刺し)
          (P て)
          (PASS *)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 174_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

(372)
中国政府は為替レートを2%引き下げた.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 中国政府))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 為替レート))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (NP;*OB1* (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                            (CL %)))
          (VB;{切りさげる.01} 引き下げ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 925_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(373)
するとまた一匹あらわれた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (CONJ すると)
          (ADVP (ADV また))
          (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                            (CL 匹)))
          (VB あらわれ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 619_aozora_Natsume-1908))

Below are examples where the floating quantifier precedes its host:

(374)
しかしその海岸一帯には、たくさん不思議な事が見聞きされる。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかし)
          (PP (NP (D その)
                  (N 海岸一帯))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (NP;*SBJ* (Q たくさん))
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 不思議)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 事))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 見聞き)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 9_aozora_Togawa-1937))

(375)
彼ら三人しか客が乗っていない電車には、暖かい陽がふり注いでいた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                              (P *に*))
                          (PP;*SBJ* (NP (PRO 彼ら)
                                        (NUMCLP (NUM 三)
                                                (CL 人)))
                                    (P しか))
                          (PP (NP (N 客))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 乗っ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 い)
                          (NEG ない))
                  (N 電車))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI 暖かい))
                  (N 陽))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB ふり注い)
          (P で)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 210_aozora_Harada-1960_f))

(376)
「もう一つルビーを持っていきましょうか」

( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                  (NP;*OB1* (ADV もう)
                            (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL つ)))
                  (PP (NP (N ルビー))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 持っ)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 いき)
                  (AX ましょ)
                  (MD う))
          (P か)
          (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 181_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

There are special cases of floating NUMCLP expressions where the relationship with a host NP is partitive. The NUMCLP expression is an argument (a referring expression) with a grammatical role marked by a particle, but it is associated with a host that denotes a whole or superset, of which the NUMCLP expression represents a part:

(377)
県内で48店舗を持つ同生協は、被害が大きかった2店が閉店した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 県内))
                              (P で))
                          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 48)
                                          (CL 店舗)))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 持つ))
                  (N 同生協))
              (P は))
          (NP-TPC *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 被害))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
                          (ADJI 大きかっ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                          (CL 店)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 閉店)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 19_newswire_KAHOKU_00039_K201403130A0T10XX00001))

(378)
製造業は14業種のうち11業種、非製造業は12業種のうち9業種が上向いた。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 製造業))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-TPC *)
                  (NP-ADV (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 14)
                                          (CL 業種)))
                              (P の))
                          (N うち))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 11)
                                  (CL 業種)))
                      (P *が*))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 非製造業))
              (P は))
          (NP-TPC *)
          (NP-ADV (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 12)
                                  (CL 業種)))
                      (P の))
                  (N うち))
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 9)
                          (CL 業種)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 上向い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 15_newswire_KAHOKU_00113_K201401010A0F90XX00001))

Non-subject arguments are rare in this configuration, but they are attested:

(379)
広域防災拠点は、総合運動場、仙台医療センター、仙台貨物ターミナル駅の計43ヘクタールを一体的に整備。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP;*OB1* (NP (N 広域防災拠点))
                    (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (CONJP (NP;{FAC} (NPR 総合運動場)))
                          (PU 、)
                          (CONJP (NP;{FAC} (NPR 仙台医療センター)))
                          (PU 、)
                          (NP;{FAC} (NPR 仙台貨物ターミナル駅)))
                      (P の))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 計43)
                          (CL ヘクタール)))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (ADVP (ADJN 一体的)
                (AX に))
          (VB 整備)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 69_newswire_KAHOKU_00078_K201401010A0FZ0XX00002))

As arguments with grammatical roles, technically these are referring expressions.

29.2.4   Referring expressions with NUMCLP

(380)
2人は口をそろえる。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 2人)))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 口))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB そろえる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 55_newswire_KAHOKU_00039_K201403130A0T10XX00001))

(381)
アンケートは県内の沿岸自治体15市町の245校を対象に実施した。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N アンケート))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 県内))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 沿岸自治体)
                                  (NUMCLP (NUM 15)
                                          (CL 市町)))
                              (P の))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 245)
                                  (CL 校)))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (PP (NP (N 対象))
                      (P に))
                  (NP-OB2 *に*))
          (VB 実施)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 24_newswire_KAHOKU_02275_K201401010A0A30XX00001))

(382)
本年度は2月1日から3月10日まで計約1800人が参加した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 本年度))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                          (CL 月))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 1)
                          (CL 日)))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 3)
                          (CL 月))
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 10)
                          (CL 日)))
              (P まで))
          (PP (NP (N 計)
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 約1800)
                          (CL 人)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 参加)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 61_newswire_KAHOKU_00039_K201403130A0T10XX00001))

29.2.5   Host-less adverbial expressions with NUMCLP

NPs headed by NUMCLPs frequently function as adverbial expressions. In the examples below, these expressions are NP-MSR expressing duration or frequency.

(383)
スミスは2年間バーミンガムに住んだ。
‘Smith lived in Birmingham for two years.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR スミス))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-MSR (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                          (CL 年間)))
          (PP (NP (NPR バーミンガム))
              (P に))
          (VB 住ん)
          (AXD だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1724_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

Below are examples of other types of adverbial usage.

(384)
全国平均を5.3ポイント下回った。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (QN 全国平均))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (NP-ADV (NUMCLP (NUM 5.3)
                          (CL ポイント)))
          (VB 下回っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 22_newswire_KAHOKU_00113_K201401010A0F90XX00001))

(385)
建物は本来の場所から50メートルも動き、約150度回転していた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 建物))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 本来))
                              (P の))
                          (N 場所))
                      (P から))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 50)
                                  (CL メートル)))
                      (P も))
                  (NP-ADV *)
                  (VB 動き))
          (PU 、)
          (NP-ADV (NUMCLP (NUM 約150)
                          (CL 度)))
          (VB 回転)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 18_newswire_KAHOKU_00184_K201406140A0T10XX00001))

(386)
「一般的に言うと累積雨量が200ミリ以上降ると危険度は上がる。

( (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                      (ADVP (ADJN 一般的)
                            (AX に))
                      (VB 言う))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 累積雨量))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (NP-ADV (NUMCLP (NUM 200)
                                      (CL ミリ))
                              (N 以上))
                      (VB 降る))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PP (NP (N 危険度))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 上がる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 75_newswire_KAHOKU_00184_K201406140A0T10XX00001))

29.3   Expressions with W

Expressions containing indeterminate (W) words interact with particles か and も to form expressions that involve quantification. For convenience we refer to these as W expressions. Note that a W expression can form a floating quantifier:

(387)
社員が誰か移動を希望している。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 社員))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (WPRO 誰)
                    (P か))
          (PP (NP (N 移動))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 希望)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 27_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(388)
試験に通りさえすれば、何も問題はない。
‘If you pass the exam, there will be no problem.’

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{MAN_830} *pro*)
                  (PP (NP (N 試験))
                      (P に))
                  (VB 通り)
                  (P さえ)
                  (VB2 すれ)
                  (P ば))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP;*SBJ* (WPRO 何)
                    (P も))
          (PP (NP (N 問題))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 830_textbook_kisonihongo))

Particles か and も are frequently adjacent to a W word in a W expression, as in (387) and (388) above. Where particles か and も are adjacent to a W word in a W expression, They appear sibling to the W word under NP (See section 8.12 for discussion).

     However, particles か and も can relate to W words at great sructural distances, forming W expressions of various categories. Various examples of this are provided below.

29.3.1   W expressions with も

If a W-expression is under a category marked by も the whole category takes on a quantificational force of free choice. In (389) below the particle marks an IP-ADV with a W word as its subject NP:

(389)
鼓は誰が打っても鳴りませんでしたが、天鼓の父・王伯が打ったところ、妙なる音色が鳴り響きました。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 鼓))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (PP (IP-ADV (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                  (PP (NP (WPRO 誰))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                  (VB 打っ)
                                  (P て))
                          (P も))
                      (CND *)
                      (VB 鳴り)
                      (AX ませ)
                      (NEG ん)
                      (AX でし)
                      (AXD た))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{PERSON} (PRN (NP (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 天鼓))
                                                    (P の))
                                                (N 父)))
                                       (PU ・)
                                       (NPR 王伯))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (VB 打っ))
              (P たところ))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 妙)
                          (AX なる))
                  (N 音色))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 鳴り響き)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 20_newswire_KAHOKU_00042_K201402120A0KI0XX00001))

In (390) the particle marks a PP with a W word heading the complement:

(390)
津波は誰にも止められない。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 津波))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (NP (WPRO 誰))
              (P に)
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *に*)
          (VB 止め)
          (VB2 られ)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 57_newswire_KAHOKU_00063_K201401110A0T10XX00001))

In (391) the particle marks the W word directly.

(391)
会計士は誰も会議に出席しなかった。
‘No accountant attended the meeting.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 会計士))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP;*SBJ* (WPRO 誰)
                    (P も))
          (PP (NP (N 会議))
              (P に))
          (VB 出席)
          (VB0 し)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1024_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

The quantificational force of free choice still holds when the W expression plus も is not under negation. See also example (177).

(392)
彼は、過去の失恋をいつまでも引きずっている.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 過去))
                      (P の))
                  (N 失恋))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (NP (WPRO いつ))
              (P まで)
              (P も))
          (VB;{引きずる.04} 引きずっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU .))
  (ID 2562_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

Note that when not under negation (as in (393) below), a WH-word plus も with a core grammatical role will be marked with a following core role particle, whereas under negation (e.g., in (391) above) there is no core particle marking.

(393)
ヨーロッパ人の誰もがヨーロッパの中を自由に移動できる。
‘Every European can travel freely within Europe.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N ヨーロッパ人))
                      (P の))
                  (WPRO 誰)
                  (P も))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR ヨーロッパ))
                      (P の))
                  (N 中))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (ADVP (ADJN 自由)
                (AX に))
          (VB 移動)
          (VB0 できる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 295_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

     W expressions with も  and the free-choice interpretation do not quantify from a prenominal position:

However, there is a productive construction with WNUM under an NP marked with も  and の  that has an existential interpretation, and this construction quantifies from a prenominal position. In this construction も  gives the meaning of exceeded expectation:

(394)
いくつもの支流に分かれ、ある流れは消えて行き、その流れのいくつかが7世紀から現在まで伝わっている。
‘Many lines have split , and some have disappeared ; in this way some of those lines have come down from the 7th century to the present day .’

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (WNUM いく)
                                                    (CL つ)))
                                        (P も)
                                        (P の))
                                  (N 支流))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 分かれ))
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (D ある)
                          (N 流れ))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (VB 消え)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 行き))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                          (N 流れ))
                      (P の))
                  (NUMCLP (WNUM いく)
                          (CL つ)))
              (P か)
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 7)
                          (CL 世紀)))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (N 現在))
              (P まで))
          (VB 伝わっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 28_wikipedia_KYOTO_02_BDS_00002))

29.3.2   W expressions with か

If a W-expression is under a category marked by か the whole category takes on an indefinite reference with existential quantificational force. Again, the marking can be directly on the W word or on a higher category, although the latter configuration is rare and seems restricted to set expressions:

(395)
大家族でにぎやかだった正月は、いつの間にか夫と二人きりになっていた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 大家族))
                              (P で))
                          (ADJN にぎやか)
                          (AX だっ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 正月))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (WPRO いつ))
                      (P の))
                  (N 間))
              (P に)
              (P か))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 夫))
                              (P と))
                          (NUMCLP (NUM 二人)))
                      (P きり)))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB なっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 11_newswire_KAHOKU_10414_K201401010A0LB0XX00006))

(396)
車が何台か、猛スピードで追い越しました。

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1 *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N 車))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (WNUM 何)
                            (CL 台))
                    (P か))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 猛スピード))
              (P で))
          (VB 追い越し)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 83_newswire_KAHOKU_00046_K201403110A0T30XX00001))

(397)
なぜか外国人集団はそこら中に小銭を投げ入れてました。

( (IP-MAT (PP (ADVP (WADV なぜ))
              (P か))
          (PP (NP (N 外国人集団))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PRO そこら)
                  (N 中))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (N 小銭))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 投げ入れ)
          (P て)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 10_blog_KNB_12_006_Kyoto))

There are also particle combinations such as that in なにもかも which receive the free choice interpretation.


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