33   Colloquial forms

This section explains how expressions specific to the colloquial style is annotated.

33.1   Interjection phrases (INTJP)

Single words tagged as INTJ do not project an INTJP, even when they are constituents at the clausal level.


( (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
          (INTJ ああ)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 王))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJN 悧巧)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 84_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

The label INTJP is used in the following cases:

      (INTJP (INTJ もしもし)
             (PU 。))

      (INTJP (INTJ はい)
             (PU 。))

      (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
              (INTJP (INTJ すみません)
                     (P が))
              (PU ,)
              (PP (NP (N 塩))
                  (P を))
              (NP-OB1 *を*)
              (VB 取っ)
              (P て)
              (VB2 ください)
              (PU 。))

      (INTJP (IP-SUB (ADVP (ADV そう))
                     (AX です))
             (P ね))

      (INTJP (NP (PRO それ))
             (P が))

Neither INTJ nor INTJP are ever sisters to a CONJP.

33.2   False starts (FS)

FS indicates a false start. This is used particularly in the spoken data when disfluencies such as repetition and restating are observed.


( (FRAG (-LRB- 「)
        (NP (FS (N ひ)
                (PU 、))
            (FS (N ひ)
                (PU 、))
            (N 人殺しイ))
        (PU ……)
        (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 41_aozora_Kunieda-1925))


( (IP-MAT (FS (NP-SBJ (D この)
                      (N 場所)))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO ここ))
                      (P の))
                  (N アリーナ))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV また))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR ギリシャ))
                              (P の))
                          (N 円形劇場))
                      (P の))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 忘我))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 状態))
                              (P の))
                          (N ため))
                      (P の))
                  (N 場所))
          (AX です))
  (ID 46_ted_talk_3))

33.3   Ellipsis

Texts in the colloquial style abound with ommisions. For zero pronouns, or omission of NPs with core grammatical roles, see section 6.

When particles for core grammatical roles are omitted, bare argument NPs are directly tagged NP-SBJ or NP-OB1.

‘Did you eat the meal?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                  (NP-OB1 (N ご飯))
                  (VB 食べ)
                  (AXD た))
          (PU ?))
  (ID 968_textbook_kisonihongo))

‘Oh, it is raining.’

( (IP-MAT (INTJ あれ)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-SBJ (N 雨))
          (VB 降っ)
          (VB2 てる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 969_textbook_kisonihongo))

Disambiguation information such as (NP-SBJ *) or (NP-SBJ *が*) is only added when a particle (either a toritate particle or a core grammatical particle, respectively) projects a phrase over a core argument NP. Otherwise, the grammatical role is marked directly on the NP:

‘Where did that guy go?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO あいつ))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-LOC (WPRO どこ))
                  (VB 行っ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (FN の))
          (P か)
          (P な)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 971_textbook_kisonihongo))

For discussion of the omission of heads in NPs see section 30.1. For discussion of the omission of heads in IP-ADVs see section 30.2.

33.4   Afterthoughts

Sometimes a phrase or series of phrases appears at the right periphery of an utterance, after the verbal syntagm, and sometimes even after sentence final particles. These are not strictly extrapositions: They generally function as confirmations of elements presupposed in the preceding sentence, appended as afterthoughts. When an NP with a grammatical role appears as an afterthought, it is related to the sentence body by coindexing with an instance of *ICH*.

‘Kobe is a beautiful town.’

                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                    (ADJI 美しい))
                            (N 街))
                    (AX です))
            (P よ)
            (PU 、)
            (PP-1 (NP (NPR 神戸))
                  (P は))
            (PU 。))
  (ID 989_textbook_kisonihongo))

‘The bus came.’

                    (NP-SBJ *が*)
                    (IP-ADV (VB 来)
                            (AXD た))
                    (CONJ *)
                    (PU 、)
                    (VB 来)
                    (AXD た))
            (PU 、)
            (PP-1 (NP (N バス))
                  (P が))
            (PU 。))
  (ID 990_textbook_kisonihongo))

33.5   Contractions

When a contraction of two morphemes occurs in the text, the the assignment of a tag is usually made according to the part of speech of the morpheme that determines the function of the whole, typically the second member. Thus, following a ren'yookei verb, the contracted forms てる (< ている), ちゃう (< てしまう), てく (< ていく), とく (< ておく) are all tagged as VB2s. Here are some examples.

‘I am going to stop, but what would you do?’

                              (PU 、)
                              (ADVP (ADV もう))
                              (VB やめ)
                              (VB2 ちゃう))
                      (P けど))
                  (SCON *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PRO 君))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (ADVP (WADV どう))
                  (VB する)
                  (FN の))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 992_textbook_kisonihongo))

‘I will put it here.’

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                    (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                    (PP (NP (PRO ここ))
                        (P に))
                    (VB 置い)
                    (VB2 とく))
            (P よ)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 998_textbook_kisonihongo))

Note that some complex modal forms that involve contraction such as きゃいけない and ちゃいけない are treated as MD.

     When a contracted form masks the presence of a functional element, that the underlying presence of that element must be indicated by supplemental annotation. In the following example, ば in やめたきゃ and in やめりゃ each are supplemented by *ば* projecting a PP:

‘If you wish to quit that much, why do not you quit.’

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                    (PP (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADJN そんな)
                                      (AX に))
                                (VB やめ)
                                (AX たきゃ))
                        (P *ば*))
                    (CND *)
                    (PU 、)
                    (PP (IP-ADV (VB やめりゃ))
                        (P *ば*))
                    (CND *)
                    (ADJI いい)
                    (AX じゃ)
                    (NEG ない))
            (P か)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 1001_textbook_kisonihongo))