Section 34
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34   Ambiguous forms

In general, it is our policy that distinct functional words with homophonous forms be distinguishable from each other by part of speech assignment, structural position, and grammatical function, to the extent that this is reasonably possible. This mainly applies to such things as particles (P), copulas (AX), verbal auxiliaries (AX), and modal elements (MD).

34.1   Particles versus copulas

Putting a large variety of functions under one part of speech simplifies analysis, but hides important distinctions in function and meaning. As a first step in sorting out the many different uses of basic functional elements, we try to distinguish between a particle and a copular function for items of the following phonological shapes: で, に, と, の.

34.1.1   で

To this end we identify, for example, a grammatical role particle で in contrast to a verbal suffix particle で and a non-finite copula stem で. The first selects an NP and projects a PP, the second follows a combining stem of a consonant-base verb to specify an inflection, and the last selects a nominal predicate and projects an IP.

     There is a limit to the fine-grainedness of the distinctions we make: Role particle で can mark, among other things, a place or occasion of activity,

(482)
共通のルールをつくる過程では、交渉と説得が行われる。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJN 共通)
                                          (AX の))
                                  (N ルール))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB つくる))
                  (N 過程))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 交渉))
                         (P と))
                  (NP (N 説得)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 行わ)
          (PASS れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 64_newswire_KAHOKU_00033_K201402110A0T30XX00001))

(483)
翌年、慶長20年(1615年)の大坂の役(夏の陣)道明寺の戦いでは後藤基次らと戦った。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
          (NP-TMP (N 翌年))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{BATTLE_DOMYOJI} (NML;{BATTLE_OSAKA_SUMMER} (PP (NP (NPR 慶長)
                                                                      (NUMCLP (NUM 20)
                                                                              (CL 年)
                                                                              (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                                                   (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1615)
                                                                                               (CL 年)))
                                                                                   (-RRB- )))))
                                                                  (P の))
                                                              (NPR;{BATTLE_OSAKA} 大坂の役)
                                                              (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                                   (NP (N 夏の陣))
                                                                   (-RRB- ))))
                                   (NPR 道明寺の戦い))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (NPR 後藤基次ら))
              (P と))
          (VB 戦っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 89_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

a position in an ordered series,

(484)
天正12年(1584年)10月に18歳で家督を相続し、伊達家17代を継承する。

( (IP-MAT;{MASAMUNE_INHERITANCE} (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                                 (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NPR 天正)
                                                 (NUMCLP (NUM 12)
                                                         (CL 年)
                                                         (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                              (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1584)
                                                                          (CL 年)))
                                                              (-RRB- ))))
                                                 (NUMCLP (NUM 10)
                                                         (CL 月)))
                                             (P に))
                                         (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 18)
                                                         (CL 歳)))
                                             (P で))
                                         (PP (NP;{DATE_FAMILY_LORD} (N 家督))
                                             (P を))
                                         (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                         (VB 相続)
                                         (VB0 し))
                                 (PU 、)
                                 (PP (NP (N;{DATE_FAMILY} 伊達家)
                                         (NUMCLP (NUM 17)
                                                 (CL 代)))
                                     (P を))
                                 (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                 (VB 継承)
                                 (VB0 する)
                                 (PU 。))
  (ID 12_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

(485)
うん、後で返事しても、いい?

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                  (INTJ うん)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                              (PP (NP (N 後))
                                  (P で))
                              (VB 返事)
                              (VB0 し)
                              (P て))
                      (P も))
                  (PU 、)
                  (ADJI いい))
          (PU ?))
  (ID 54_spoken-refusal-response_JF04))

an instrument, cause, or reason,

(486)
太郎は風邪で学校を休んだ。
‘Taro was absent from school because of a cold.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_232} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 風邪))
              (P で))
          (PP (NP (N 学校))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 休ん)
          (AXD だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 232_textbook_kisonihongo))

(487)
取材で行く西日本は東北とは食べ物も建造物も違う。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-LOC *T*)
                          (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                          (PP (NP (N 取材))
                              (P で))
                          (VB 行く))
                  (NPR 西日本))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR 東北))
              (P と)
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ2 (CONJP (NP (N 食べ物))
                          (P も))
                   (NP (N 建造物))
                   (P も))
          (VB 違う)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 12_newswire_KAHOKU_00303_K201401010W5XP4XX00001))

parts or materials for a composite entity:

(488)
この煙突はレンガで出来ている。
‘This chimney is made of brick .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 煙突))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N レンガ))
              (P で))
          (VB 出来)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 366_textbook_TANAKA))

We do not distinguish between these meanings of the grammatical role particle で.

     In contrast to the grammatical role particles above, the verbal suffix particle で (an allomorph of て) attaches to onbin forms of voiced velar or nasal consonant base verbs (e.g., 泳ぐ, 読む, etc.): 泳いで, 読んで.

(489)
また、ヘプバーンは縁起を担いで自身のラッキーナンバーである「55」番の楽屋を求めた。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ また)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 縁起))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 担い)
                  (P で))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (PRO 自身))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (N ラッキーナンバー))
                                          (AX で)
                                          (VB2 ある))
                                  (NUMCLP (-LRB- 「)
                                          (NUM 55)
                                          (-RRB- 」)
                                          (CL 番)))
                          (AX の))
                  (N 楽屋))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 求め)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 175_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

     Finally, the non-finite copula で appears after an NP-PRD ending an IP-ADV,

(490)
ハリウッド黄金時代に活躍した女優で、映画界ならびにファッション界のアイコンとして知られる。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (PP (NP (NPR ハリウッド黄金時代))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 活躍)
                                  (VB0 し)
                                  (AXD た))
                          (N 女優))
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 映画界))
                                 (CONJ ならびに))
                          (NP (N ファッション界)))
                      (P の))
                  (N アイコン))
              (P として))
          (VB 知ら)
          (PASS れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 3_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

or as the stem of analytic copular forms like (AX で) (VB2 ある) and (AX で) (VB2 ござい((AX ます).

(491)
一人は、W君といって、初対面の人である。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一人)))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{Wkun} (NPR W君))
                      (P と))
                  (VB いっ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (N 初対面))
                          (AX の))
                  (N 人))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 8_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

There are scenarios where the distinction between a copula and a particle is not easy to make: Descriptions of mode of event and depictive expressions are included in these. At present the practice is to annotate で following common and proper nouns as P:

(492)
刺身は生で食べる。
‘We eat sashimi raw.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *arb*)
          (PP (NP (N 刺身))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (NP (N 生))
              (P で))
          (VB 食べる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 777_textbook_kisonihongo))

and as で following ADJN is annotated as an AX:

(493)
崖を必死でよじ登った.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N 崖))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (ADVP (ADJN 必死)
                (AX で))
          (VB;{よじ上る.01} よじ登っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 3296_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

Furthermore, in IP-ADVs we annotate で following formal nouns or other elements with modal meanings (MDs そう, べき, もの, よう, わけ, AXs ごとく, がち, みたい, etc.) as AX, and で following formal nouns with aspectual meanings (MDs そう, or AXs ところ, っぱなし) as AX, just as だ or です are used in matrix contexts.

(494)
私は先生の部屋に行ったが、入れ違ったようで会えなかった.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 先生))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 部屋))
                                  (P に))
                              (VB;{行く} 行っ)
                              (AXD た))
                      (P が))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (VB;{入れ違う.01} 入れ違っ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (MD よう)
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (VB;{会う} 会え)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 191_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(495)
著作権保護か何かよくわからないけれどもmp3ファイルを直接取り込むのは不可能みたいで、これが不便である。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                              (NP-OB1 (PP (NP (N 著作権保護))
                                          (P か))
                                      (WPRO 何)
                                      (P か))
                              (ADVP (ADV よく))
                              (VB わから)
                              (NEG ない))
                      (P けれども))
                  (SCON *)
                  (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                  (PP (NP (N mp3ファイル))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (NP-ADV (N 直接))
                                  (VB 取り込む))
                          (N の))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (ADJN 不可能)
                  (MD みたい)
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO これ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJN 不便)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 3_blog_KNB_04_004_Keitai))

In many respects the considerations with regard to the phonological form で also hold for forms に, と, and の. Each of these has a copular function mirrored in its structural position, although the details for each differ.

34.1.2   に

Particle に marks both core and peripheral grammatical roles. Core particle に marks NP-SBJ with potential predicates such as できる, 難しい, stative predicates such as 必要だ and 無理だ, cognitive predicates such as 分かる, 見える, 欲しい, etc. に marks NP-OB1 in a variety of basic predicates, including verbs like 似る, 勝つ, 当たる, 飽きる, etc., い-adjectives such as 詳しい, 弱い, 等しい, 厳しい, etc., な-adjectives such as 必死だ, 反対だ, etc. に marks NP-OB2 for ditransitive verbs like あげる 送る. に marks NP-OB1 Causees in many causative constructions and marks NP-LGS in direct passive constructions. Of course in each case the core grammatical role is specified.

     Role particle に marks temporal and spatial location for non-activity verbs. に marks the Goal for verbs of motion such as 行く, 着く, etc. に marks the Source for the verbs 借りる, 貰う and いただく. に marks a demoted Agent in unaccusative verbs like 捕まる, 見つかる, 教わる, 弱る, etc. に marks something similar to an agent with verbs like 満ちる, 溢れる, まみれる. The list is quite long and varied, but we do not distinguish between these meanings of the grammatical role particle に.

     As a special set of cases, に is analyzed as a complementizer for purpose clauses with verbs of motion (see section 30.13):

(496)
わたしは彼を起しに行く」。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO わたし))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP-PRP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 起し))
                  (P に))
          (VB 行く)
          (-RRB- 」)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 944_bible_new))

     に is also analyzed as a copula in some contexts. Primarily heading ADVPs, we see ADJN followed by (AX に).

(497)
また、供養墓が他の大名などと同様に高野山奥の院にある。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ また)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 供養墓))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADVP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 他))
                            (P の))
                        (N 大名))
                    (P など)
                    (P と))
                (ADJN 同様)
                (AX に))
          (PP (NP (NPR 高野山奥の院))
              (P に))
          (VB ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 242_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

Another context for (AX に) is in small clause constructions:

(498)
私はこの国に生まれ落ちたことを幸せに思う.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (D この)
                                  (N 国))
                              (P に))
                          (VB;{生まれ落ちる.01} 生まれ落ち)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N こと))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-SMC (ADJN 幸せ)
                  (AX に))
          (VB;{思う} 思う)
          (PU .))
  (ID 343_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

(499)
怖そうにも見えた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (IP-SMC (ADJI 怖)
                  (MD そう)
                  (AX に)
                  (P も))
          (VB 見え)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 269_aozora_Natsume-1908))

One more context for copula に is in the small clause complements of verbs する and なる:

(500)
嗅覚とか味覚を刺激し、心をほぐして豊かにしてくれる。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 嗅覚))
                                 (P とか))
                          (NP (N 味覚)))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 刺激)
                  (VB0 し))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 心))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-ADV (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                  (VB ほぐし)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (IP-SMC (ADJN 豊か)
                  (AX に))
          (VB し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 くれる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 45_newswire_KAHOKU_00303_K201401010W5XP4XX00001))

(501)
ある日、オットーは借金のカタとして自動車を回収する業者=レポマンのバッドという男と知り合い、自分もレポマンになる事を決める。

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (D ある)
                  (N 日))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{YOUTH} (NPR オットー))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (NP-PRD (PRN (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                                   (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 借金))
                                                                               (P の))
                                                                           (N カタ))
                                                                       (P として))
                                                                   (PP (NP (N 自動車))
                                                                       (P を))
                                                                   (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                                   (VB 回収)
                                                                   (FRAME (luID *_*)
                                                                          (luName *回収する.v*)
                                                                          (frameID *550*)
                                                                          (frameName *Claim_ownership*)
                                                                          (ARG0 *Claimant*)
                                                                          (ARG1 *Property*)
                                                                          (として *Role*))
                                                                   (VB0 する))
                                                           (N 業者)
                                                           (SYM =)))
                                                  (N レポマン))
                                          (AX の)
                                          (FRAME (luID *_*)
                                                 (luName *の.v*)
                                                 (frameID *1029*)
                                                 (frameName *Identicality*)
                                                 (ARG0 *Current_instance*)
                                                 (PRD *Type*)))
                                  (NPR バッド))
                              (P という))
                          (N 男))
                      (P と))
                  (VB 知り合い)
                  (FRAME (luID *_*)
                         (luName *知り合う.v*)
                         (frameID *1085*)
                         (frameName *Make_acquaintance*)
                         (ARG0 *Individual_1*)
                         (と *Individual_2*)
                         (TMP *Time*)))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP;{YOUTH} (PRO 自分))
                              (P も))
                          (NP-SBJ *)
                          (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N レポマン))
                                  (AX に)
                                  (FRAME (luID *_*)
                                         (luName *に.v*)
                                         (frameID *1818*)
                                         (frameName *Be_subset_of*)
                                         (ARG0 *Part*)
                                         (PRD *Total*)))
                          (VB なる)
                          (FRAME (luID *_*)
                                 (luName *成る.v*)
                                 (frameID *186*)
                                 (frameName *Change_of_state_endstate*)
                                 (ARG0 *Entity*)
                                 (SMC *State*)))
                  (N 事))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 決める)
          (FRAME (luID *_*)
                 (luName *決める.v*)
                 (frameID *363*)
                 (frameName *Deciding*)
                 (ARG0 *Cognizer*)
                 (ARG1 *Decision*)
                 (TMP *Time*))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 5_wikipedia_RepoMan))

Here too are scenarios where the distinction between a copula and a particle is not easy to make: In expressions such as ご褒美に, 担保に, しるしに, etc., に is arguably a copula, but the present practice is to annotate it as a role particle:

(502)
メロスの十六の妹も、きょうは兄の代りに羊群の番をしていた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR メロス))
                      (P の))
                  (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 十六)))
                      (P の))
                  (N 妹))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N きょう))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 兄))
                      (P の))
                  (N 代り))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 羊群))
                      (P の))
                  (N 番))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 133_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

Resultative clauses also can be analyzed as small clauses, and in this context too に is arguably a copula, but the present practice is to annotate it as a role particle, unless immediately following an ADJN:

(503)
どう考え、どう行動するかを判断する力、すなわち「生き抜く力」を身に付けるならば、原発事故のマイナスをプラスに変えられる。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                              (PP (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                                                  (IP-ADV (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                                                          (VB 考え))
                                                                  (PU 、)
                                                                  (ADVP (WADV どう))
                                                                  (VB 行動)
                                                                  (VB0 する))
                                                          (P か))
                                                  (P を))
                                              (VB 判断)
                                              (VB0 する))
                                      (N 力))
                                  (PU 、)
                                  (P すなわち))
                              (NML (-LRB- 「)
                                   (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                           (VB 生き抜く))
                                   (N 力)
                                   (-RRB- 」)))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 身に付ける))
              (P ならば))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 原発事故))
                      (P の))
                  (N マイナス))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (NP (N プラス))
              (P に))
          (VB 変え)
          (VB2 られる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 82_newswire_KAHOKU_00055_K201406190A0T10XX00201))

34.1.3   と

Within an NP と functions as a conjunctive particle. Note how と heads CONJP for non-final conjuncts, but is “buried” under the dominating NP at the end of a list (see section 28 for more discussion):

(504)
滝役の千葉治郎は阿部と内田とで決めた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 滝役))
                      (P の))
                  (NPR 千葉治郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (NPR 阿部))
                         (P と))
                  (NP (NPR 内田))
                  (P と))
              (P で))
          (NP-SBJ *で*)
          (VB 決め)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 124_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

     At the IP level, role particle と is primarily comitative. Sometimes the particle marking is determined by the requirements of the verb:

(483)
翌年、慶長20年(1615年)の大坂の役(夏の陣)道明寺の戦いでは後藤基次らと戦った。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
          (NP-TMP (N 翌年))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{BATTLE_DOMYOJI} (NML;{BATTLE_OSAKA_SUMMER} (PP (NP (NPR 慶長)
                                                                      (NUMCLP (NUM 20)
                                                                              (CL 年)
                                                                              (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                                                   (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1615)
                                                                                               (CL 年)))
                                                                                   (-RRB- )))))
                                                                  (P の))
                                                              (NPR;{BATTLE_OSAKA} 大坂の役)
                                                              (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                                   (NP (N 夏の陣))
                                                                   (-RRB- ))))
                                   (NPR 道明寺の戦い))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (NPR 後藤基次ら))
              (P と))
          (VB 戦っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 89_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

(506)
この年には『昼下りの情事』にも出演しており、ゲーリー・クーパーやモーリス・シュヴァリエと共演した。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 年))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (-LRB- 『)
                          (NPR 昼下りの情事)
                          (-RRB- 』))
                      (P に)
                      (P も))
                  (VB 出演)
                  (VB0 し)
                  (P て)
                  (VB2 おり))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (NPR ゲーリー・クーパー))
                         (P や))
                  (NP (NPR モーリス・シュヴァリエ)))
              (P と))
          (VB 共演)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 134_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

In other instances the role that the particle marks is peripheral to the predication:

(507)
お昼に、卒業生と、なんか、ご飯いっしょに食べるんだけど

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                    (PP (NP (N お昼))
                        (P に))
                    (PU 、)
                    (PP (NP (N 卒業生))
                        (P と))
                    (PU 、)
                    (ADVP (ADV なんか))
                    (PU 、)
                    (NP-OB1 (N ご飯))
                    (PP (NP (N いっしょ))
                        (P に))
                    (VB 食べる)
                    (P ん)
                    (AX だ))
            (P けど))
  (ID 45_spoken-refusal-response_JF04))

と marks the proper noun in naming constructions with verbs such as 名付ける or 呼ぶ, and other “mention” uses of words:

(508)
日本ではヘップバーンと表記されることも多い。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR 日本))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (NPR ヘップバーン))
                              (P と))
                          (VB 表記)
                          (VB0 さ)
                          (PASS れる))
                  (N こと))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI 多い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 2_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

と attaches to IP-ADV as a conjunctive particle:

(509)
太平の世になると美食を極めることに目的を変えて料理研究を続けた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                      (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (ADJN 太平)
                                      (AX の))
                              (N 世))
                          (P に))
                      (NP-OB1 *に*)
                      (VB なる))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 美食))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB 極める))
                          (N こと))
                      (P に))
                  (PP (NP (N 目的))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 変え)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 料理研究))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 続け)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 208_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

と marks complement clauses of verbs of thought, feeling, and communication:

(510)
そっか、ごはん、いっしょに食べないかなぁと思って。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (INTJ そっか)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker+hearer*)
                                  (NP-OB1 (N ごはん))
                                  (PU 、)
                                  (PP (NP (N いっしょ))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 食べ)
                                  (NEG ない))
                          (P か)
                          (P なぁ))
                  (P と))
          (VB 思っ)
          (P て)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 43_spoken-refusal-response_JF01))

と also has a distribution much like infinitive copula に in many respects. It appears at the end of adverbial expressions, and is annotated as (AX と) following ADJNs that head ADVPS:

(511)
しかし、ユダヤ人らを恐れて、イエスのことを公然と口にする者はいなかった。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ しかし)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (PP (NP (N ユダヤ人ら))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 恐れ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR イエス))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N こと))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (ADVP (ADJN 公然)
                                (AX と))
                          (PP (NP (N 口))
                              (P に))
                          (VB する))
                  (N 者))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB い)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 537_bible_new))

After common nouns it is still annotated as P:

(296)
企画段階で紆余曲折を経た本作は、放映開始されても順風満帆とは行かなかった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 企画段階))
                              (P で))
                          (PP (NP (N 紆余曲折))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 経)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 本作))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (VB 放映開始)
                      (VB0 さ)
                      (PASS れ)
                      (P て))
              (P も))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP (N 順風満帆))
              (P と)
              (P は))
          (VB 行か)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 81_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

There are many cases where と seems to have a distribution like that of に, but this is hidden somewhat by the practice of chunking と together with adverbial material. Here are some adverbs ending in と:

ぴたりと, ふうと, グイと, ソッと, ハッと, 颯と, うんと, しっかと, ぱっと, ひらりと, ゾッと, さっさと, パッと, ひょっと, ぐっと, わざと, ひょいと, ほっと, 何と, なんと, さっと, ふと, そっと, わりと, きちんと, ちゃんと, じっと, やっと, きっと, ずっと, もっと, ちょっと

     と also appears after ADJNs and NP-PRDs in small clause constructions:

(513)
ここで構想されたストーリーは、本郷を父の仇と信じるヒロインや、殺人者・本郷を追う刑事などの登場人物が配され、主人公の逃亡者としての苦悩も付加された。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP;{MASK_ANGEL_SCRIPT_WRITING_BEGINNING} (PRO ここ))
                              (P で))
                          (VB 構想)
                          (VB0 さ)
                          (PASS れ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N ストーリー))
              (P は))
          (NP-TPC *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                     (PP (NP (NPR 本郷))
                                                         (P を))
                                                     (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                     (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (PP (NP (N 父))
                                                                         (P の))
                                                                     (N 仇))
                                                             (AX と))
                                                     (VB 信じる))
                                             (N ヒロイン))
                                         (P や))
                                  (PU 、)
                                  (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                              (PP (NP (NPR 殺人者・本郷))
                                                  (P を))
                                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                              (VB 追う))
                                      (N 刑事))
                                  (P など))
                              (P の))
                          (N 登場人物))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 配さ)
                  (PASS れ))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 主人公))
                      (P の))
                  (PP (NP (N 逃亡者))
                      (P として)
                      (P の))
                  (N 苦悩))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 付加)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 38_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

and in small clause complements to verbs する and なる:

(514)
また、この頃ヘプバーンは、アンネ・フランクの『アンネの日記』を題材とした舞台作品と映画作品の両方への出演依頼を受けた。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ また)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-TMP (D この)
                  (N 頃))
          (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR アンネ・フランク))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (-LRB- 『)
                                                  (NPR アンネの日記)
                                                  (-RRB- 』))
                                              (P を))
                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                          (PP (NP (N 題材))
                                              (P と))
                                          (VB し)
                                          (AX た))
                                  (NML (CONJP (NP (N 舞台作品))
                                              (P と))
                                       (NP (N 映画作品))))
                              (P の))
                          (Q 両方))
                      (P へ)
                      (P の))
                  (N 出演依頼))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 受け)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 127_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

(515)
礼に過ぐれば諂(へつらい)となる。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *arb*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 礼))
                      (P に))
                  (VB 過ぐれ)
                  (P ば))
          (CND *)
          (PP (NP (N 諂)
                  (PRN (-LRB- ()
                       (NP (N へつらい))
                       (-RRB- ))))
              (P と))
          (NP-OB1 *と*)
          (VB なる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 134_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

34.1.4   の

の appears as a grammatical role particle marking an NP1 as a complement of a N2 (typically via a possessor/possessee relation or a whole/part relation or a set/member relation):

(516)
私のゼミの卒業生が集まって食事会をするんですけどもー

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO 私))
                                        (P の))
                                    (N ゼミ))
                                (P の))
                            (N 卒業生))
                        (P が))
                    (NP-SBJ *が*)
                    (IP-ADV (VB 集まっ)
                            (P て))
                    (CONJ *)
                    (PP (NP (N 食事会))
                        (P を))
                    (NP-OB1 *を*)
                    (VB する)
                    (P ん)
                    (AX です))
            (P けどもー))
  (ID 15_spoken-refusal-response_JF01))

の appears as a core grammatical particle (P) marking subject NPs in adnominal clauses:

(517)
花子の読んだ本

( (FRAG (NP (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                    (PP (NP (NPR 花子))
                        (P の))
                    (NP-SBJ *の*)
                    (VB 読ん)
                    (AXD だ))
            (N 本)))
  (ID 32_misc_EXAMPLE))

(518)
隙のない印象の政宗であるが、酒には滅法弱く、酔って失敗した逸話がいくつか残されている。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                      (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 隙))
                                                          (P の))
                                                      (NP-SBJ *の*)
                                                      (ADJI ない))
                                              (N 印象))
                                      (AX の))
                              (NPR 政宗))
                      (AX で)
                      (VB2 ある))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                  (PP (NP (N 酒))
                      (P に)
                      (P は))
                  (ADVP (ADV 滅法))
                  (ADJI 弱く))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                          (IP-ADV (VB 酔っ)
                                  (P て))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (VB 失敗)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 逸話))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (WNUM いく)
                            (CL つ))
                    (P か))
          (VB 残さ)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 218_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

の appears as a clause-level particle after a finite predicate and before a copula in a main clause (that is, as an element in a のだ construction):

(519)
分からないのですがー

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                    (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                    (VB 分から)
                    (NEG ない)
                    (P の)
                    (AX です))
            (P がー))
  (ID 12_spoken-refusal-response_JF02))

の may be a formal noun (N) which nominalizes a clause. This is the typical pattern for a pseudocleft clause:

(520)
舞台でイライザを演じていたのはジュリー・アンドリュースだったが、アンドリュースには映画出演の話は来なかった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (PP (NP (N 舞台))
                                          (P で))
                                      (PP (NP (NPR イライザ))
                                          (P を))
                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                      (VB 演じ)
                                      (P て)
                                      (VB2 い)
                                      (AXD た))
                              (N の))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (NP-PRD (NPR ジュリー・アンドリュース))
                      (AX だっ)
                      (AXD た))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (NPR アンドリュース))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 映画出演))
                      (P の))
                  (N 話))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 来)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 181_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

But the formal noun の can be used to nominalize facts and activities:

(521)
「あなたが裸であるのを、だれが知らせたのか。

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (-LRB- 「)
                  (NP-OB2 *hearer*)
                  (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PRO あなた))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                  (NP-PRD (N 裸))
                                  (AX で)
                                  (VB2 ある))
                          (N の))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (WPRO だれ))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 知ら)
                  (VB2 せ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (P の))
          (P か)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 118_bible_old))

Sometimes の follows a noun phrase as the adnominal form of a copula (AX の):

(522)
もしよかったら、また別の機会があれば・・・。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV もし))
                      (ADJI よかっ))
              (P たら))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV また))
                  (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADJN 別)
                                  (AX の))
                          (N 機会))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB あれ)
                  (P ば))
          (PU ・・・)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 20_spoken-refusal-response_JF01))

(267)
この行為は秀吉の派手好みの性格を知っての行いと伝えられる。

( (IP-MAT (CP-THT-SBJ (IP-SUB (PP (NP;{MASAMUNE_TEE} (D この)
                                                     (N 行為))
                                  (P は))
                              (NP-SBJ *)
                              (NP-PRD (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                                                  (PP (NP (PP (NP;{HIDEYOSHI} (NPR 秀吉))
                                                              (P の))
                                                          (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                                  (NP-PRD (N 派手好み))
                                                                  (AX の))
                                                          (N 性格))
                                                      (P を))
                                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                  (VB 知っ)
                                                  (P て))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 行い))
                              (AX *))
                      (P と))
          (VB 伝え)
          (PASS られる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 40_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

(524)
2日後の20日に参勤交代に出発した政宗は急に病状を悪化させ、宿泊した郡山では嚥下困難に嘔吐が伴い何も食べられなくなっていた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{MASAMUNE} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                     (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                     (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                                                                     (CL 日))
                                                             (N 後))
                                                     (AX の))
                                             (NUMCLP (NUM 20)
                                                     (CL 日)))
                                         (P に))
                                     (PP (NP;{SANKIN_KOTAI} (N 参勤交代))
                                         (P に))
                                     (VB 出発)
                                     (VB0 し)
                                     (AXD た))
                             (NPR 政宗))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADJN 急)
                        (AX に))
                  (PP (NP (N 病状))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (IP-SMC (VB 悪化)
                          (VB0 さ))
                  (VB せ))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{KORIYAMA} (IP-REL (NP-LOC *T*)
                                     (NP-SBJ;{MASAMUNE} *pro*)
                                     (VB 宿泊)
                                     (VB0 し)
                                     (AXD た))
                             (NPR 郡山))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 嚥下困難))
                      (P に))
                  (PP (NP (N 嘔吐))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 伴い))
          (NP-OB1 (WPRO 何)
                  (P も))
          (VB 食べ)
          (VB2 られ)
          (NEG なく)
          (VB2 なっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 115_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

See section 9.4.3 for discussion on the criteria for disambiguating の from particles of the same phonological form.

34.2   だろう and でしょう

There exist volitional/presumptive copulas consisting of a copula stem (だろ, でしょ, であろ) immediately followed by (MD う).

(134)
怖いのは目立たない問題だろう。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI 怖い))
                  (N の))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (VB 目立た)
                          (NEG ない))
                  (N 問題))
          (AX だろ)
          (MD う)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 31_newswire_KAHOKU_00616_K201401010A0A106B00001))

Note that the copula (AX だろ) (MD う) is identical in pronunciation to (MD だろう). These volitional copulas do not co-occur before (MD だろう) and (MD だろう) never supplants them. (MD だろう) can appear after any predicate that doesn't involve a copula, and after AXD following any predicate (including after past tense copular expressions).

(526)
これはヘプバーンの映画だと思う人は多いだろう。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO これ))
                                              (P は))
                                          (NP-SBJ *)
                                          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (N 映画))
                                          (AX だ))
                                  (P と))
                          (VB 思う))
                  (N 人))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI 多い)
          (MD だろう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 110_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

See section 9.4 for more discussion.

34.3   (ら)れる

There is a polysemous verb form that is formed by adding (ら)れる to the relevant combining stem of a verb: られる is added to the i/e-combining stem for vowel base verbs, and こ for 来る, and れる is added to the a-stem of consonant-base verbs. The form is generaly ambiguous between direct passive, indirect passive, and honorific usages. For the vowel base verbs and 来る, the spontaneous usage and the potential usages are formed in the same way, making (ら)れる five-way ambiguous for these verbs. This section discusses the extent to which we distinguish these usages, and the means we adopt to do it.

34.3.1   Direct passive

In a direct passive construction, semantically, an NP-SBJ has a Patient role with respect to the core predicate (VB) (corresponding to a either NP-OB1 of NP-OB2 in a construction in active voice) and NP-LGS has an Agent role with respect to the core predicate (VB) (corresponding to an NP-SBJ in a construction in active voice). Thus if A-が Bに VB1(ら)れる is true, then B-が Aを VB1 is also true.

     The verbal auxiliary (ら)れる in the direct passive construction is assigned the label PASS. and ‘NP に / から / によって’ is an NP-LGS (a logical subject).

(527)
太郎は朝早く、友人に電話で起こされた。
‘Taro was woken up early in the morning with a phone call by a friend.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_415} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-TMP (N 朝)
                  (N 早く))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 友人))
              (P に))
          (NP-LGS *に*)
          (PP (NP (N 電話))
              (P で))
          (VB 起こさ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 415_textbook_kisonihongo))

See section 30.7 for more discussion.

34.3.2   Indirect passive

The indirect passive is a valence-increasing construction which adds an affected subject NP-SBJ at the same time that it demotes the logical subject of the core predicate to NP-OB1. The internal arguments of the core predicate preserve their positions and grammatical roles, but these, along with the core predicate, are placed under IP-SMC, and the auxiliary verb (VB (ら)れる) becomes the head of a superordinate clause.

(528)
太郎が雨に降られた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 太郎))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (N 雨))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (IP-SMC (VB 降ら))
          (VB れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1824_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(529)
鈴木さんは昨夜、一晩中子供に泣かれて困った。
‘Mr. Suzuki was perplexed last night with his child crying all night long.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SUZUKI_407} (NPR 鈴木さん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (NP-TMP (N 昨夜))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-MSR (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                  (CL 晩))
                          (N 中))
                  (PP (NP (N 子供))
                      (P に))
                  (NP-OB1 *に*)
                  (IP-SMC (VB 泣か))
                  (VB れ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (VB 困っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 407_textbook_kisonihongo))

Note that while some grammars identify scenarios where a Possessor is NP-SBJ and a Possessee is NP-OB1 in a passive construction as being a special case of direct passive with an underlying Source argument (持ち主の受身), most syntactic arguments for that analysis have counterevidence. Such scenarios are treated as indirect passives here.

(530)
太郎が泥棒に財布を盗まれた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{PERSON} (NPR 太郎))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (N 泥棒))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (IP-SMC (PP (NP (N 財布))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 盗ま))
          (VB れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1812_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(531)
後にヘプバーンは、もし歌のほとんど全てを吹き替えられることが分かっていれば、あの役を引き受けることは決してなかったと語っている。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 後))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP (NPR ヘプバーン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV もし))
                                  (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                                                  (IP-SMC (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 歌))
                                                                      (P の))
                                                                  (ADV ほとんど)
                                                                  (Q 全て))
                                                              (P を))
                                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                          (VB 吹き替え))
                                                  (VB られる))
                                          (N こと))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-OB1 *が*)
                                  (VB 分かっ)
                                  (P て)
                                  (VB2 いれ)
                                  (P ば))
                          (CND *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (D あの)
                                                  (N 役))
                                              (P を))
                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                          (VB 引き受ける))
                                  (N こと))
                              (P は))
                          (NP-OB1 *)
                          (ADVP (ADV 決して))
                          (ADJI なかっ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (P と))
          (VB 語っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 192_wikipedia_Audrey_Hepburn))

Note well: Whether or not the subject NP-SBJ is adversely affected is not at issue in identifying this construction. The crucial question is whether the construction is valence-increasing. The presence of an を-marked NP-OB1 is not sufficient to decide the matter, either. In such a situation, check whether the predicate is three-place and the subject is an underlying NP-OB2 in a corresponding active voice construction.

34.3.3   Spontaneous

In the spontaneous usage of (ら)れる, main verbs are limited to those that mean cognition, thinking, or feeling. This type of (ら)れる is labeled VB2.

     An experiencer NP-SBJ (marked with either に, は, or には) is the logical subject of the core predicate, while the internal argument of the core predicate is marked with が  but retains its NP-OB1 label. With respect to particle marking and core roles, the construction is identical to the direct passive. The labelling practice is different to distinguish this usage and render it parallel to that for spontaneous usage with verbs derived from consonant-base verbs, and with unaccusative verbs of transitivity pairs (discussed briefly below).

(532)
私にはその話が不思議に思われた。
‘The story seemed wondrous to me.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_373} (PRO 私))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP;{STORY_373} (D その)
                              (N 話))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (IP-SMC (ADJN 不思議)
                  (AX に))
          (VB 思わ)
          (VB2 れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 373_textbook_kisonihongo))

(533)
台所の隅に、その一升瓶があるばっかりに、この狭い家全体が、どろりと濁って、甘酸っぱい、へんな匂いさえ感じられ、なんだか、うしろ暗い思いなのである。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{DAZAI} *speaker*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 台所))
                                  (P の))
                              (N 隅))
                          (P に))
                      (PU 、)
                      (PP (NP;{DAZAI_LIQUOR_2_SHO} (D その)
                                                   (N 一升瓶))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (VB ある))
              (P ばっかり)
              (P に))
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{DAZAI_HOUSE} (D この)
                                        (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                (ADJI 狭い))
                                        (N 家)
                                        (QN 全体))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (ADVP (ADV どろり))
                      (P と))
                  (VB 濁っ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADJI 甘酸っぱい))
                          (PU 、)
                          (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADJN へん)
                                  (AX な))
                          (N 匂い))
                      (P さえ))
                  (NP-OB1 *)
                  (VB 感じ)
                  (VB2 られ))
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV なんだか))
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI うしろ暗い))
                  (N 思い))
          (AX な)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 69_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

(534)
そういう事も今になって考えて見ると、甚だ奇怪に感じられるのである。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (D そういう)
                  (N 事))
              (P も))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                      (NP-OB1 *pro*)
                      (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                              (PP (NP (N 今))
                                  (P に))
                              (NP-OB1 *に*)
                              (VB なっ)
                              (P て))
                      (CONJ *)
                      (VB 考え)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 見る))
              (P と))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-SMC (ADVP (ADV 甚だ))
                  (ADJN 奇怪)
                  (AX に))
          (VB 感じ)
          (VB2 られる)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 58_aozora_Edogawa-1929))

Note that the predicate form mentioned here may be used ambiguously both in the spontaneous usage as above and in the passive usage below:

(535)
太郎はみんなに陽気な人間だと思われている。
‘Taro is thought to be a cheerful person by everyone.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_427} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (Q みんな))
              (P に))
          (NP-LGS *に*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{TARO_427} *pro*)
                          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJN 陽気)
                                          (AX な))
                                  (N 人間))
                          (AX だ))
                  (P と))
          (VB 思わ)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 427_textbook_kisonihongo))

There exist verbs which are used in spontaneous meanings or in similar meanings, some being derived from consonant base verbs (their potential form or passive form), and some being the unaccusative members of transitivity pairs:

They are treated as independent verbs and are labelled VB.

34.3.4   Potential

The potential form of vowel-base verbs (and irregular verb 来る) is formed in the same way as the direct passive, indirect passive, spontaneous, and honorific forms, adding られる to the relevant combining stem (viz. the i/e-combining stem for vowel base verbs, and こ for 来る): 見られる, 食べられる, こられる. An alternative colloquial form adds れる to these: 見れる, 食べれる, 来れる. In both cases the added morpheme is labelled VB2.

     This contrasts with the potential form for consonant-based verbs, formed on an e-combining stem: 走れる. This is left unanalyzed, as one VB. In some dialects the passive of a vowel-base verb is used for potential meaning: 走られる, particularly with a subdued subject in a specific sense (see discussion below). In this case the added morpheme is labelled VB2. The potential form for する is suppletive: できる. When できる is used as a light verb following a verbal noun it is labelled VB0.

     For two-place predicates which can take OB1 with を, core particle marking can follow any of three patterns.

The status of the subjects in potential constructions is a bit complex. Their denotations typically have animate, sentient, human features. A (NP-SBJ *arb*) subject in a sentence like 一回目で自転車にうまく乗れないのは誰だって一緒だ  is perfectly normal. But a sentence like この山が登れない is odd unless a retrievable subject (“we, they, everyone,” etc.) is available for the interpretation.

(536)
この山が登れない。
‘I/you/he/she/we/they can't climb this mountain.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MAN_36} *pro*)
          (PP (NP;{MOUNTAIN_36} (D この)
                                (N 山))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (VB 登れ)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 36_misc_EXAMPLE))

34.3.5   Honorific

In the honorific usage of the (ら)れる form, the core grammatical roles and labels are retained unchanged. (ら)れる is tagged as VB2.

(537)
鈴木先生はその問題を詳しく調べられた。
‘Mr. Suzuki looked into the problem in detail.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SUZUKI_1302} (NPR 鈴木先生))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP;{PROBLEM_1302} (D その)
                                 (N 問題))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (ADVP (ADJI 詳しく))
          (VB 調べ)
          (VB2 られ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1302_textbook_kisonihongo))

For other honorific verb forms, see 9.1.2.

34.4   よう

The evidential ending ようだ “It seems that...” which follows the past and non-past form of verbs, い-adjectives, な-adjectives, and copular predicates is tagged as MD.

(538)
この事実から判断すると、あなたの見方は正しくないようだ。
‘Judging from this fact, it seems your point of view is not correct.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{MAN_221} *pro*)
                      (NP-OB1;{CONCLUSION_221} *pro*)
                      (PP (NP (D この)
                              (N 事実))
                          (P から))
                      (VB 判断)
                      (VB0 する))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP;{HEARER_221} (PRO あなた))
                      (P の))
                  (N 見方))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI 正しく)
          (NEG ない)
          (MD よう)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 221_textbook_kisonihongo))

But when ようだ is used to express a simile meaning, よう is tagged as N which takes an IP-EMB.

(539)
頬冠りに尻端折り、草履は懐中へ忍ばせたものか、そこだけピクリと脹れているのが蛇が蛙を呑んだようだ。

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADV (CONJP (NP (N 頬冠り))
                         (P に))
                  (NP (N 尻端折り)))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                          (PP (NP (N 草履))
                                              (P は))
                                          (NP-OB1 *)
                                          (PP (NP (N 懐中))
                                              (P へ))
                                          (VB 忍ばせ)
                                          (AXD た))
                                  (N もの))
                              (P か))
                          (NP-ADV *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (NP (PRO そこ))
                              (P だけ))
                          (NP-SBJ *)
                          (PP (ADVP (ADV ピクリ))
                              (P と))
                          (VB 脹れ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N の))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 蛇))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (PP (NP (N 蛙))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 呑ん)
                          (AXD だ))
                  (N よう))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 60_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

The evidential ending ようだ “It seems that...” is tagged as N when it is modified by the pattern [N + の].

(540)
太郎はまだ子供のようだ。
‘Taro seems to be a child still.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_62} (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV まだ))
          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (N 子供))
                      (P の))
                  (N よう))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 62_textbook_kisonihongo))

(541)
このようなことを知っている人は、もはやいない。
‘There is no longer a person who knows such a thing.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (NP-PRD;{FACT_111} (D この)
                                                             (N よう))
                                          (AX な))
                                  (N こと))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 知っ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いる))
                  (N 人))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV もはや))
          (VB い)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 111_textbook_kisonihongo))

Modified by IP-EMB and itself modifying other words, よう as in ような is tagged as N.

(542)
あいつは俺に感謝するどころか、おれの顔に泥をぬるようなことばかりしてくれる。
‘Far from thanking me, he always does things which bring shame on me.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{MAN_1197} (PRO あいつ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_1197} (PRO 俺))
                          (P に))
                      (VB 感謝)
                      (VB0 する))
              (P どころか))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ;{MAN_1197} *pro*)
                                          (PP (NP (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_1197} (PRO おれ))
                                                      (P の))
                                                  (N 顔))
                                              (P に))
                                          (PP (NP (N 泥))
                                              (P を))
                                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                          (VB ぬる))
                                  (N よう))
                          (AX な))
                  (N こと))
              (P ばかり))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (VB し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 くれる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1197_textbook_kisonihongo))

In manner adverbial constructions, ように is tagged as N heading an NP under a PP headed by (P に).

(543)
人前ではよく聞こえるように話すものだ。
‘You are supposed to talk in a way that you can be heard well, when you are in public.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MAN_65} *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N 人前))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (ADVP (ADV よく))
                          (VB 聞こえる))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (VB 話す)
          (MD もの)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 65_textbook_kisonihongo))

(544)
歩道を歩くようにして下さい。
‘Please walk along the sidewalk.’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 歩道))
                              (P を))
                          (VB 歩く))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 下さい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 193_textbook_kisonihongo))

(545)
最近、やっと納豆がおいしく食べられるようになった。
‘Recently, I have come to able to eat Natto with enjoyment at last.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MAN_350} *pro*)
          (NP-TMP (N 最近))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (ADVP (ADV やっと))
                          (PP (NP (N 納豆))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-OB1 *が*)
                          (ADVP (ADJI おいしく))
                          (VB 食べ)
                          (VB2 られる))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB なっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 350_textbook_kisonihongo))

(546)
部長は鈴木さんにすぐ帰るように命じた。
‘The head of the department ordered Mr. Suzuki to return soon.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 部長))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP;{SUZUKI_1079} (NPR 鈴木さん))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (ADVP (ADV すぐ))
                          (VB 帰る))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (VB 命じ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1079_textbook_kisonihongo))

In the complements of cognitive verbs, ように appears in a small clause:

(547)
黒い天井に差す丸行灯の丸い影が、仰向く途端に生きてるように見えた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJI 黒い))
                                  (N 天井))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 差す))
                  (PP (NP (N 丸行灯))
                      (P の))
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJI 丸い))
                  (N 影))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (VB 仰向く))
                  (N 途端))
              (P に))
          (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (VB 生き)
                                  (VB2 てる))
                          (N よう))
                  (AX に))
          (VB 見え)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 86_aozora_Natsume-1908))

In ending a non-final conjunct in a clasual coordination at main clause level, evidential ようで is tagged as MD:

(494)
私は先生の部屋に行ったが、入れ違ったようで会えなかった.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 先生))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 部屋))
                                  (P に))
                              (VB;{行く} 行っ)
                              (AXD た))
                      (P が))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (VB;{入れ違う.01} 入れ違っ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (MD よう)
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (VB;{会う} 会え)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 191_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))


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