5   Basic clause structure

A matrix clause is labelled IP-MAT. The pairing of a subject (either overtly expressed in the annotation or not) and a predicate together projects a clause (IP, or “inflectional phrase”). Typically, a clause has one main predicate, of which there are four types: verb (VB), い-adjective (ADJI), な-adjective (ADJN) with copula (AX), and nominal predicate (NP-PRD) with copula (AX). The annotation does not invoke a VP level, and so IP structure is typically flat, with clause level constituents represented at the same level as main predicate material.


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR 花子))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 泣い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1823_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 料理))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJI おいしい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1358_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

‘Kim is clever.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR キム))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADJN 有能)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1442_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

‘Mary is female.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR メアリー))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (N 女性))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1053_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

In principle phrases (rather than words) combine with predicates under IPs to compose clauses with complex meanings.

In addition to core predicative material (verb, い-adjective, な-adjective + copula, nominal predicate + copula), a small number of other word level constituents can be immediately dominated by IP. These are: coordinating conjunctions (CONJ), single-word interjections (INTJ; see section 33.1), auxiliary verbal morphology (PASS, AX, etc.), sentential negation (NEG), modals (MD) and particles (P; see section 8.8).

‘This means he was not at the scene at the time of the crime.’

( (IP-MAT (CONJ つまり)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 犯行時刻))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 現場))
              (P に))
          (VB い)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (MD わけ)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 662_textbook_kisonihongo))

     Segmentation policy chunks modals fairly liberally. Many of the segmentation decisions are inherited from the system used for BCCWJ and CSJ (see section 4). Modals never project a phrase.


( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR 太郎))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR 花子))
              (P ぐらい))
          (PP (NP (N 背))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
          (ADJI 高い)
          (MD かもしれない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1612_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))