Section 8
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8   Particles/Postpositions (P)

Particles are tagged P. Particles will typically attach to a noun phrase or clause and carry out various functions. In terms of consequences for the annotation, particles can be grouped into the following ten types:

  1. particles for core grammatical roles,
  2. particles for peripheral grammatical roles,
  3. CONJP particles,
  4. CND disambiguated PP conjunctive particles,
  5. SCON disambiguated PP conjunctive particles,
  6. CONJ disambiguated PP conjunctive particles,
  7. Complementizer particles,
  8. sentence-final particles,
  9. particles as clausal constituents, and
  10. toritate (focus) particles

Note well: Particles that share a given phonological form can mark more than one function or role in the same group. For example, in the group of particles for core grammatical roles, に can mark SBJ, SBJ2, LGS, OB1, and OB2. Particles that share a given phonological form can appear in more than one group. For example, と appears in the group of particles for core grammatical roles, the group of particles for peripheral grammatical roles, the group of CND disambiguated PP conjunctive particles, and the group of complementizer particles. A particle of a given group and function may have more than one phonological form. For example, the particle の that appears in the group of particles as clausal constituents has an alternative form ん.

     The term “case particle” is defined here as subsuming the class of particles for core grammatical roles and the class of particles for peripheral grammatical roles, while excluding all other classes. In the annotation here, “case” does not figure as a grammatical category.

8.1   Particles for core grammatical roles: が, を, に, の, と, で, から, etc.

Particles for core grammatical roles such as が, を, に, etc., are associated with marking the core grammatical roles of noun phrases, such NP-SBJ, NP-OB1, NP-OB2. However, there is no one-to-one correspondence between role and particle. Consequently, disambiguation information is included with the annotation. Thus, (NP-SBJ *が*) indicates that が of the immediately preceeding sibling PP marks an NP taking the core grammatical role of subject.

(48)
それが私に何とやら奇妙な感じを与えたのである。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO それ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB2 *に*)
          (ADVP (ADV 何とやら))
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADJN 奇妙)
                          (AX な))
                  (N 感じ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 与え)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 39_aozora_Edogawa-1929))

(49)
懸物が見える。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N 懸物))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (VB 見える)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 120_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(50)
象は鼻が長い。
‘The nose of an elephant is long.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 象))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 鼻))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
          (ADJI 長い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 3_misc_EXAMPLE))

(51)
その手にさわった革財布。

( (FRAG (NP-ADV (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                        (PP (NP (D その)
                                (N 手))
                            (P に))
                        (NP-OB1 *に*)
                        (VB さわっ)
                        (AXD た))
                (N 革財布))
        (PU 。))
  (ID 47_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

(52)
そこで彼らは、もう一度この盲人に聞いた、

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (CONJ そこで)
          (PP (NP (PRO 彼ら))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-MSR (ADV もう)
                  (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                          (CL 度)))
          (PP (NP (D この)
                  (N 盲人))
              (P に))
          (VB 聞い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 、))
  (ID 784_bible_new))

(53)
私の知らぬお名前であった。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{INDUSTRY_POST_SAMPLE_SENDER} *pro*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                          (PP (NP;{DAZAI} (PRO 私))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ *の*)
                          (VB 知ら)
                          (NEG ぬ))
                  (N お名前))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 17_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

     The core grammatical role SBJ is sometimes marked by a case particle other than が. The core grammatical role OB1 is sometimes marked by a case particle other than を. See section 7.1.1.

     The distinction between the function of に marking OB1/OB2 and the function of に marking adjuncts is sometimes difficult to make. Some predicates (for example, 当たる) are used in a variety of senses, some of which select a に-marked OB1 (e.g., 役目に当たった) and some of which do not (e.g., 宝くじが当たった).

8.2   Particles for peripheral roles: の, に, へ, で, から, まで, と, etc

A particle for a peripheral grammatical role carries unambiguous information about the relation between the NP it marks and the predicate that NP relates to. There is no need to further specify the relation using disambiguation information. The following examples illustrate this principle for の, に, へ, で, から, まで, と and を.

(54)
日本語の勉強の時間
‘Japanese language study time’

( (FRAG (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 日本語))
                        (P の))
                    (N 勉強))
                (P の))
            (N 時間)))
  (ID 4_misc_EXAMPLE))

(55)
3時にここに来い。
‘Come here at three.’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 3)
                          (CL 時)))
              (P に))
          (PP (NP;{CURRENT_PLACE_534} (PRO ここ))
              (P に))
          (VB 来い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 534_textbook_kisonihongo))

(56)
次の日、ツバメは波止場へ行きました。

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (PP (NP (N 次))
                      (P の))
                  (N 日))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N ツバメ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 波止場))
              (P へ))
          (VB 行き)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 205_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

(57)
爺さんは酒の加減でなかなか赤くなっている。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 爺さん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 酒))
                      (P の))
                  (N 加減))
              (P で))
          (ADVP (ADV なかなか))
          (ADJI 赤く)
          (VB2 なっ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 233_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(58)
ITELは1988年から1992年までAPCOMを所有していた。
‘ITEL owned APCOM from 1988 to 1992.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{ORG} (NPR ITEL))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1988)
                          (CL 年)))
              (P から))
          (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 1992)
                          (CL 年)))
              (P まで))
          (PP (NP;{ORG} (NPR APCOM))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 所有)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1778_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(59)
だって彼女はいつも風といちゃついてるんだから」

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (CONJ だって)
                    (PP (NP (PRO 彼女))
                        (P は))
                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (ADVP (ADV いつも))
                    (PP (NP (N 風))
                        (P と))
                    (VB いちゃつい)
                    (VB2 てる)
                    (P ん)
                    (AX だ))
            (P から)
            (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 37_aozora_Yuki-1-2000))

(60)
私たちはショッピングセンターをぶらぶら歩いた。
‘We wandered round the shopping center .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私たち))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N ショッピングセンター))
              (P を))
          (ADVP (ADV ぶらぶら))
          (VB 歩い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 188_textbook_TANAKA))

8.3   Complex particles

When a sequence of words as a whole functions like a single P, it is chunked as an single complex particle and labelled P. Many of these complex particles are chunked in accordance with the analysis in BCCWJ and CSJ. Of course, for many such sequences, there may be cases where one or more components are functioning as lexical items. Such cases require re-segmenting by hand with each segment reassigned to its appropriate structural position. There are over 70 complex particles represented here, a rather long list for a functional category. Here is the list:

うえで, うえに, からすると, 代わりに, 際に, だけではなく, たって, たところ, ために, めの, っていう, で言う, という, というより, といえば, といった, として, としても, とすれば, とともに, とはいえ, ともに, ながらの, ならでは, に相次いで, に当たって, にあたり, にあたる, において, における, にかかわらず, に限らず, にかけて, に関して, に関する, に比べて, に際し, に際して, に従い, にして, にしろ, に対し, に対して, に対する, について, に次いで, につき, にとって, に伴う, に反して, に比して, にまつわる, に向けて, にも関わらず, によって, により, によりて, による, によると, によれば, にわたって, にわたり, にわたる, の代わりに, の方で, ほどなく, ように, よりも, わりに, を介して, を通じ, を通じて, を通して, を始め, をめぐって, をめぐる, をもって

     For example, the complex particle によって can be associated with the core grammatical role LGS in passivized predications.

(61)
このデザイン画は平山によって渡邊専務にもたらされた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{DESIGN} (D この)
                           (N デザイン画))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (NPR 平山))
              (P によって))
          (NP-LGS *によって*)
          (PP (NP (NPR 渡邊専務))
              (P に))
          (VB もたらさ)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 60_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

     The complex particle について in the following example marks an adjunct.

(62)
モーセは、わたしについて書いたのである。

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1 *pro*)
          (PP (NP (NPR モーセ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO わたし))
              (P について))
          (VB 書い)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (VB2 ある)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 389_bible_new))

However, について in (63) is not analyzed as a single particle, but as a sequence ending with a verb:

(63)
彼は新しい仕事について、まるで生き返ったようだ.

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADJI 新しい))
                          (N 仕事))
                      (P に))
                  (VB;{就く} つい)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV まるで))
          (VB;{生き返る.01} 生き返っ)
          (AXD た)
          (MD よう)
          (AX だ)
          (PU .))
  (ID 134_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))

The contrast above is trivial as the sense of the word つく  differs greatly between the examples.

     The contrast between the complex particle につれて  in (64) and the particle-verb sequence in (65) below is easy to make because the particle almost always follows verb forms.

(64)
経済が発展するにつれて、社会の矛盾も拡大してきた。
‘As the economy develops, contradictions in society have expanded.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 経済))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (VB 発展)
                      (VB0 する))
              (P につれて))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 社会))
                      (P の))
                  (N 矛盾))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 拡大)
          (VB0 し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 き)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1196_textbook_kisonihongo))

(65)
ディズニーランドに連れて行かれました。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MAN_43} *pro*)
          (PP (NP (N ディズニーランド))
              (P に))
          (VB 連れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 行か)
          (VB2 れ)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 43_misc_EXAMPLE))

But for a complex particle like にむけ(て・た)  more difficult distinctions must be made. In (66) below, the question is whether 向け  takes two arguments or whether に向け  takes just one.

(66)
「国際交渉に向け日本政府の意思表示が必要だ」と国が早期に誘致を決断するよう訴えた。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{EVANS} *pro*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (-LRB- 「)
                          (NP-SBJ;{CORPORATION} *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (N 国際交渉))
                              (P に向け))
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 日本政府))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 意思表示))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ2 *が*)
                          (ADJN 必要)
                          (AX だ)
                          (-RRB- 」))
                  (P と))
          (NP-ADV (IP-EMB (PP (NP (N 国))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (PP (NP (N 早期))
                              (P に))
                          (PP (NP (N 誘致))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 決断)
                          (VB0 する))
                  (N よう))
          (VB 訴え)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 19_newswire_KAHOKU_00089_K201401040A0F70XX00001))

8.4   Non-clausal conjunctive particles

     Linking phrases of the same (or similar) type into a series can create different sorts of structures. For IPs, the linkage can be either subordinating or coordinating, or for relative clauses modifying a single head N in parallel, simple parataxis (for this latter case see about “stacked relative clauses” in section 22). Particles involved in subordinating linkages for IPs are discussed in section 8.5.1 and section 8.5.2. Particles that connect constituents into coordinated structures fall into two groups: Particles involved in coordinating linkages for IPs are discussed in section 8.5.3. In contrast to IP coordination, a particle that connects, respectively, multiple NPs or PPs into coordinated structures occurs as the head of a CONJP. We refer to the grammatical process of NP or PP coordination as “non-clausal coordination”. Non-clausal coordination can take place without the support of particles (P) or coordinating conjuncts (CONJ), but particles frequently appear with this function. The full list of such particles and conjuncts is as follows:

か, から, だけでなく, だけでなくて, だとか, だの, ではなく, でも, と, とか, とともに, と共に, など, なり, に, にして, に加え, のみではなく, のみならず, の上に, はおろか, も, やら, をはじめ

     The distinction between P and CONJ in a context dominated by CONJP is not a crucial distinction. In fact, the inventories for these two parts of speech overlap. A part of speech assignment is made when trees are produced for the annotators, and there is in principle no need for an annotator to change the assignment in this context.

     See the discussion on the pattern of non-clausal coordination in section 28.

(67)
鈴木さんと高津さんが協議した。
‘Mr. Suzuki and Mr. Takatsu discussed a matter.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (CONJP (NP;{SUZUKI_317} (NPR 鈴木さん))
                         (P と))
                  (NP;{SUZUKI_317} (NPR 高津さん)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 協議)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 317_textbook_kisonihongo))

(68)
スミスかジョーンズかアンダーソンが契約書にサインした。
‘Either Smith, Jones or Anderson signed the contract.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (NPR スミス))
                         (P か))
                  (CONJP (NP (NPR ジョーンズ))
                         (P か))
                  (NP (NPR アンダーソン)))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (N 契約書))
              (P に))
          (VB サイン)
          (VB0 し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 964_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

(69)
机や椅子を並べて下さい。
‘Please put desks and chairs in line.’

( (IP-IMP (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 机))
                         (P や))
                  (NP (N 椅子)))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 並べ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 下さい)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 894_textbook_kisonihongo))

(70)
捕り方衆の叫び声があっちからもこっちからも聞こえて来る。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 捕り方衆))
                      (P の))
                  (N 叫び声))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (CONJP (PP (NP (PRO あっち))
                         (P から))
                     (P も))
              (PP (NP (PRO こっち))
                  (P から))
              (P も))
          (VB 聞こえ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 来る)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 5_aozora_Kunieda-1925))

8.5   Clausal conjunctive particles

8.5.1   Conjunctive particles subordinating conditional IPs

For linkages between clauses, one type of subordinating conjunction is conditional. The semantic effect of the subordinate clause is implication. In the configuration involving particles, a dependent clause IP-ADV is the complement of a particle phrase PP that is immediately followed by (CND *) disambiguation information. This PP constituent is sister to (and modifies) a predicate head of a superordinate IP. See section 26.2 for a discussion of control effects that arise with IP-ADV in this configuration.

     A list of some of the particles that head such PPs is as follows:

ったって, ったら, って, なら, ならば, は, ものなら, と

(71)
だって携帯の会社変えたらアドレスとか全部変わるもんね。

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (CONJ だって)
                    (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                (NP-OB1 (PP (NP (N 携帯))
                                            (P の))
                                        (N 会社))
                                (VB 変え))
                        (P たら))
                    (CND *)
                    (PP (NP (N アドレス))
                        (P とか))
                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (NP;*SBJ* (Q 全部))
                    (VB 変わる))
            (P もん)
            (P ね)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 8_blog_KNB_05_005_Keitai))

(72)
まっすぐに王城に行き着けば、それでよいのだ。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADJN まっすぐ)
                        (AX に))
                  (PP (NP (N 王城))
                      (P に))
                  (VB 行き着け)
                  (P ば))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO それ))
              (P で))
          (ADJI よい)
          (P の)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 198_aozora_Dazai-2-1940))

(73)
試験があまり難しいと、合格者は出ないだろう。
‘If the examination is very difficult, there will be no successful candidate.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 試験))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                      (ADVP (ADV あまり))
                      (ADJI 難しい))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 合格者))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 出)
          (NEG ない)
          (MD だろう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 100_textbook_kisonihongo))

(74)
ビールはよく冷えていても飲みたくない。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{SPEAKER_26} *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N ビール))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV よく))
                      (VB 冷え)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 い)
                      (P て))
              (P も))
          (CND *)
          (VB 飲み)
          (AX たく)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 26_misc_EXAMPLE))

(75)
奇体だと思っていましたら、また腹かけから何か出しました。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                      (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                      (ADJN 奇体)
                                      (AX だ))
                              (P と))
                      (VB 思っ)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 い)
                      (AX まし))
              (P たら))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV また))
          (PP (NP (N 腹かけ))
              (P から))
          (NP-OB1 (WPRO 何)
                  (P か))
          (VB 出し)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 162_aozora_Miyazawa-1934_d))

(76)
漆も塗ってなければ磨きもかけてない。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *arg*)
          (NP-OB2 *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 漆))
                      (P も))
                  (NP-OB1 *)
                  (VB 塗っ)
                  (VB2 て)
                  (NEG なけれ)
                  (P ば))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 磨き))
              (P も))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (VB かけ)
          (VB2 て)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 291_aozora_Natsume-1908))

8.5.2   Conjunctive particles subordinating non-conditional IPs

For linkages between clauses, the other type of subordinating conjunction is non-conditional. The semantic effects of the subordinated clauses are various: concessive, adversative, purposive, cause-introducing, grounds-introducing, reason-introducing, additive, alternative, expressive of temporal relations of concurrence, simultaneity, priority, etc. In the configuration involving particles, a dependent clause IP-ADV is the complement of a particle phrase PP that is immediately followed by (SCON *) disambiguation information. This PP constituent is sister to (and modifies) a predicate head of a superordinate IP. See section 26.2 for a discussion of control effects that arise with IP-ADV in this configuration.

     Conjunctive particles subordinating non-conditional IPs include complex particles. A fairly complete list of the particles that head such PPs is as follows:

あげくに, か, から, からには, けど, たって, だって, ために, から, からといって, からと云って, からと言って, からには, からは, が早いか, きり, くせに, けど, けども, けれども, けれどもー, けれも, こそ, し, たびに, たら, だけあって, だら, っきり, って, で, ですから, でも, とあって, という, というのに, とか, ところが, ところで, として, としても, とも, と同時に, と同様に, と言うか, ど, どころか, ども, ながら, など, に, にあたって, にしても, につれ, につれて, には, にもかかわらず, にも関わらず, に当たり, に従って, ので, のでー, のなんのって, のに, ばかりか, ほど, も, ものの, や, やいなや, や否や, ゆえ, ん, んで, 丈け, 上で, 代わりに, 以上, 為に, 際に

(77)
この論文は2度読んでみたけれども、理解できなかった。
‘I read this paper twice but could not understand.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP;{PAPER_1171} (D この)
                               (N 論文))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                      (NP-OB1;{PAPER_1171} *pro*)
                      (NP-MSR (NUMCLP (NUM 2)
                                      (CL 度)))
                      (VB 読ん)
                      (P で)
                      (VB2 み)
                      (AXD た))
              (P けれども))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (VB 理解)
          (VB0 でき)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1171_textbook_kisonihongo))

(78)
用事がありますから、失礼します。
‘Excuse me, I have something to do.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                      (PP (NP (N 用事))
                          (P が))
                      (NP-OB1 *が*)
                      (VB あり)
                      (AX ます))
              (P から))
          (SCON *)
          (PU 、)
          (VB 失礼)
          (VB0 し)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1134_textbook_kisonihongo))

(79)
毎朝ご飯を食べてから,コーヒーを飲みます。
‘Every morning after eating a meal I drink coffee.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{SPEAKER_5} *speaker*)
          (NP-TMP (QN 毎朝))
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N ご飯))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB 食べ)
                      (P て))
              (P から))
          (SCON *)
          (PU ,)
          (PP (NP (N コーヒー))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 飲み)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 5_misc_EXAMPLE))

(80)
この薬はにがくないので,飲みやすいです。
‘This medicine is easy to take because it isn't bitter.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{MAN_6} *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP;{DRUG_6} (D この)
                                       (N 薬))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (ADJI にがく)
                      (NEG ない))
              (P ので))
          (SCON *)
          (PU ,)
          (NP-OB1;{DRUG_6} *pro*)
          (VB 飲み)
          (AX やすい)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 6_misc_EXAMPLE))

8.5.3   Conjunctive particles coordinating independent IPs

For linkages between clauses, another relation mediated by particles is that of coordination between independent IPs. The IP-ADV is followed by CONJ, either covertly (CONJ *), or with an overt conjunctive particle. In addition, for multiple non-initial conjuncts, the structural configuration used to express this in a tree is somewhat different to that for subordinate IP-ADV clauses headed by a particle phrase (PP), in that each conjunct clause is subordinate to the conjunct that immediately follows it. For the purposes of semantic interpretation, however, clauses so coordinated are treated as being at the same structural level. See section 27 for a discussion of the conditions on antecedents for co-reference with empty positions in this configuration.

が, けども, けれども, し, すなわち, とともに, と共に, ども, など, やら, わ,

     There is some overlap in the inventory of coordinating and subordinating particles. Only a few particles are regularly coordinating in clause final position. Whether a clause is independent of and not embedded within an immediately following clause or not is decidable by the meaning of the sentence as a whole and by reference to whether the clauses share the same conditions on antecedents for co-reference with gaps that the clauses contain respectively. The example below does have a particle が after the first rightward clause boundary. Note that the subject argument position for both clauses takes the same antecedent (here a zero pronoun in a leftmost ATB position).

(81)
前回は民主党の推薦を受け大勝したが、今回は市民党の立場で戦う。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 前回))
                          (P は))
                      (NP-TMP *)
                      (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP;{ORG} (NPR 民主党))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 推薦))
                                  (P を))
                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                              (VB 受け))
                      (CONJ *)
                      (VB 大勝)
                      (VB0 し)
                      (AXD た))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 今回))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 市民党))
                      (P の))
                  (N 立場))
              (P で))
          (VB 戦う)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 135_newswire_KAHOKU_00028_K201401010A0F30XX00001))

8.6   Particles intrducing complementizer clauses (CP-THT): と, という, etc.

The content of speech, thought, representation, or reception may be anything from a sequence of full sentential utterances to an interjection or a fragment. When particles such as と or という introduce a clausal constituent that denotes such content as the complement of a predicate or a noun, the phrasal category CP-THT is projected.

8.6.1   Content complements of predicates

A list of some of the complementizer particles introducing content complements of predicates:

って, と, ッて, とか

     Examples with と introducing complement clauses that are complements of the verb 言う (‘say’):

(82)
ジョンは、ビルが自分を傷つけたと言った。
‘John said Bill had hurt himself.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ジョン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-THT (IP-SUB (PP (NP (NPR ビル))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 傷つけ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (P と))
          (VB 言っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1151_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

8.6.2   Content complements of nouns

A set of special complementizers connects the content of speech, thought, representation, or reception to nouns. A list of some complementizer particles introducing content complements of nouns:

っちゅう, っつう, って, っていう, ていう, という, といった, とかいう, とする, との, と云う, と言う, など, なんて, なんていう, なんと云う,

     An example with という introducing a quoted clause as the complement of the noun 意味 (‘meaning’):

(83)
ギリシャ語の忘我(エクスタシー)は何かの横に立つという意味です

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N ギリシャ語))
                      (P の))
                  (N 忘我)
                  (PRN (-LRB- ()
                       (NP (N エクスタシー))
                       (-RRB- ))))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (CP-THT (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (WPRO 何)
                                                  (P か))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N 横))
                                      (P に))
                                  (VB 立つ))
                          (P という))
                  (N 意味))
          (AX です))
  (ID 35_translated_TED_3-MihalyCsikszentmihalyi_2004))

Some complex particles like という and との allow questions to modify nouns:

(84)
こんなことを続けてもいいのかという疑問が絶えず私を苦しめた。
‘A question whether I can continue a thing like this tortured me incessantly.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                                      (PP (NP;{ACTIVITY_1211} (D こんな)
                                                              (N こと))
                                          (P を))
                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                      (VB 続け)
                                      (MD てもいい)
                                      (P の))
                              (P か))
                      (P という))
                  (N 疑問))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADVP (ADV 絶えず))
          (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_1211} (PRO 私))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 苦しめ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1211_textbook_kisonihongo))

Note that when introducing complements of nouns, if particles such as という and って take an NP rather than a clause, then those particles project a PP not a CP:

(85)
晩年の政宗は、『酔余口号』という漢詩を残している。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 晩年))
                      (P の))
                  (NPR;{MASAMUNE} 政宗))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (-LRB- 『)
                          (NPR 酔余口号)
                          (-RRB- 』))
                      (P という))
                  (N 漢詩))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 残し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 194_wikipedia_Datemasamune))

In this kind of noun modification, the complement restricts the reference of the common noun to a member of the class that the common noun denotes by attributing a name. Structurally, there is nothing to distinguish naming constructions like these from other PP complements of nouns besides the phonological shape of the terminal.

8.7   Sentence-final particles: か, ね and よ, etc.

At the rightmost edge of a main clause, particles can appear that are more related to speech act type than they are to predication. In order to separate such a sentence-final particle from the verbal syntagm it follows, it is marked up as the head of CP projection taking the main clause (IP-SUB) as complement. The type of CP could be either CP-EXL (exlamatives), CP-QUE (questions), or CP-FINAL (those that are neither exclamatives nor questions) depending on the clause type of the sentence in which the sentence final particle appears.

(86)
「この船は西へ行くんですか」

( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (PP (NP (D この)
                          (N 船))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (PP (NP (N 西))
                      (P へ))
                  (VB 行く)
                  (P ん)
                  (AX です))
          (P か)
          (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 403_aozora_Natsume-1908))

(87)
なんとガムのおまけだったのだよ。
‘Believe it or not , it came in a pack of gum .’

( (CP-EXL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                  (ADVP (ADV なんと))
                  (NP-PRD (PP (NP (N ガム))
                              (P の))
                          (N おまけ))
                  (AX だっ)
                  (AXD た)
                  (P の)
                  (AX だ))
          (P よ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 869_textbook_TANAKA))

(88)
それは残念ですね。

( (CP-FINAL (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO それ))
                        (P は))
                    (NP-SBJ *)
                    (ADJN 残念)
                    (AX です))
            (P ね)
            (PU 。))
  (ID 163_aozora_Edogawa-1929))

When there are multiple sentence-final particles, they all appear under the same CP projection.

(89)
「それはまた、どうしてかね?

( (CP-QUE (-LRB- 「)
          (IP-SUB (PP (NP (PRO それ))
                      (P は))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (ADVP (ADV また))
                  (PU 、)
                  (ADVP (WADV どうして)))
          (P か)
          (P ね)
          (PU ?))
  (ID 163_aozora_Hayashida-2015))

8.8   Particles as clausal constituents: て, ん, の, は, も, etc.

Particles directly dominated by IP, (e.g. て, ん, の, は, も, etc.) belong to the class of clausal constituents, along with predicates, auxiliary elements, modals, and simple interjections. One example is the particle て, which frequently ends the verbal syntagm of an IP-ADV. Particle て can also be followed by some auxiliary verbs (VB2), e.g., いる, ある, おく, しまう, みる, みせる, あげる, くれる, やる, くださる, いく,くる, いらっしゃる, まいる, お出で, ご覧, 頂戴, etc. These constituents are directly dominated by IP.

(90)
あいつはきっとデートをしているんだ。
‘He must be going out on a date.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TANAKA_654} (PRO あいつ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV きっと))
          (PP (NP (N デート))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (P ん)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 655_textbook_kisonihongo))

     Particle たり  is treated in the same way as て  with regard to its placement directly under IP. In an IP-ADV, たり  ends the verbal syntagm and usually that IP-ADV is a non-final coordinate clause. In a final IP, たり  follows a core verb, and is in turn followed by a form of (VB2 する), or one of its equivalent honorific, humble, or potential forms.

(91)
うちのスタッフが殴られたり、罵倒されたりすることもあります。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (N うち))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N スタッフ))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (IP-ADV (VB 殴ら)
                                  (PASS れ)
                                  (P たり))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (VB 罵倒)
                          (VB0 さ)
                          (PASS れ)
                          (P たり)
                          (VB2 する))
                  (N こと))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB あり)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 101_newswire_KAHOKU_00037_K201403080A0T10XX00001))

     Similarly, the particle の that forms the のだ construction occupies the same structural position directly dominated by IP. (P は) frequently appears together with NEG under IP. Depending on the context, toritate particles such as は,も,しか,さえ, etc. can appear between elements in the verbal syntagm.

(92)
田中が会いに来たのではない。
‘It is not that Tanaka came to see him.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TANAKA_730} (NPR 田中))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP-PRP (IP-ADV (VB 会い))
                  (P に))
          (VB 来)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX で)
          (P は)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 730_textbook_kisonihongo))

8.9   Toritate (focus) particles: か, しか, は, ばかり, も, etc.

The class of toritate particles can be roughly described as relating a constituent to the domain of discourse. For example, は marks things that are already in the domain, or marks elements that are in contrast to something else in the domain. And も in affirmative contexts marks things additional to the domain. This group of particles does not contribute grammatical role information. Accordingly, when marking clause-level NPs, toritate particles must either be accompanied by a particle that does provide grammatical role information or be accompanied by disambiguation information providing the grammatical role. In the latter case the disambiguation information is integrated with an adjacent constituent with functional information that contains only *.

     Relevant particles include:

か, きり, くらい, ぐらい, こそ, ごと, さえ, しか, しも, すら, だけ, だって, って, でも, とか, とも, ともあれ, など, なら, ならば, なんか, なんて, にしてからが, にしても, にせよ, に限って, のみ, は, ばかし, ばかり, ばかりか, ほど, 程, も, やら

An example of toritate particle も following particle と, where も is in construction with an interrogative (here a WPRO) under negative scope.

(93)
子供は何とも云わなかった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 子供))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (WPRO 何))
              (P と)
              (P も))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (VB 云わ)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 534_aozora_Natsume-1908))

An example with toritate particle は occurring with temporal disambiguation information:

(94)
その時は母も笑った。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (D その)
                  (N 時))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (PP (NP (N 母))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 笑っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 537_aozora_Natsume-1908))

An example with toritate particle は occurring with subject disambiguation information and toritate particle しか occurring with disambiguation information for NP-OB1:

(95)
解決策は当事者しか導き出せない。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 解決策))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (PP (NP (N 当事者))
              (P しか))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 導き出せ)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 86_newswire_KAHOKU_00065_K201403060A0T10XX00001))

8.10   Particle ommission

There are instances when for a given NP, が, を, へ, に and other particles that might be expected to appear given the grammatical role played by that NP in its context do not in fact appear. This happens particularly often when argument NPs are introduced in conversation and the headlines of newspaper articles. When such bare NPs appear at the left periphery of sentence or an utterance, they often function as topic phrases with a particular discourse role. But when the grammatical function of a bare NP (with respect to a predicate) is retrievable, the annotation either specifies the function directly with an extension to the phrase tag, or by referring to a particle that would otherwise denote that function. For convenience we call these particles “omitted particles”. If the bare NP is an argument (i.e., has a core grammatical role), then there is no reference to a particle and the argument is directly labelled with its role, e.g., NP-SBJ, NP-OB1, etc. In (96) below, the noun phrase 掲示板のポスター has the core grammatical role of OB1 with respect to the predicate 見た, and so is labelled as such. If the bare NP is an adjunct (i.e., has a peripheral grammatical role), then a PP projection is created and a particle specifying that role is inserted as a terminal beginning and ending with ‘*’. For an instantiation of this treatment, see in (97) how the bare adjunct NP 会議 (goal of the predicate 出る) is marked up as an NP complement to an ommitted particle *に*:

(96)
なんか、美奈子、掲示板のポスター、見た?

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *hearer*)
                  (NP (WPRO なん)
                      (P か))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-VOC (NPR 美奈子))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-OB1 (PP (NP (N 掲示板))
                              (P の))
                          (N ポスター))
                  (PU 、)
                  (VB 見)
                  (AXD た))
          (PU ?))
  (ID 28_spoken-refusal-response_JF06))

(97)
君、明日の会議出るの。
‘Will you be present at the meeting tomorrow?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{HEARER_690} (PRO 君))
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 明日))
                              (P の))
                          (N 会議))
                      (P *に*))
                  (VB 出る)
                  (P の))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 690_textbook_kisonihongo))

8.11   Particle stacking

PPs usually do not stack up. That is, a PP is normally not the complement of a P. When there are more than one particle attached to a noun, they are placed in series under the same PP. The particles だけ, のみ, and ばかり can appear before particles with core and peripheral grammatical roles (as well as immediately after NP-PRD). And toritate particles appear after に in general and after particles with peripheral grammatical roles. When particles are string-adjacent in situations such as these, they are placed as siblings under the same phrasal projection.

(98)
折り紙にはこれしかありません

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 折り紙))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (PP (NP (PRO これ))
              (P しか))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB あり)
          (AX ませ)
          (NEG ん))
  (ID 53_translated_TED_1-RobertLang_2008))

8.12   Particle burying

When a particle such as など and とか ends a non-clausal coordination, the coordination-ending particle is placed under the NP dominating the conjuncts:

(99)
この近くには温泉とか野球場とかがあって、とても楽しいです。
‘In the neighbourhood there is a hot spring, a baseball ground, etc, so it is a lot of fun.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP;{VICINITY_884} (D この)
                                 (N 近く))
              (P に)
              (P は))
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 温泉))
                                 (P とか))
                          (NP (N 野球場))
                          (P とか))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB あっ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADV とても))
          (ADJI 楽しい)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 884_textbook_kisonihongo))

(100)
広東人は運輸、デパート経営などに関わった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{CANTON_PEOPLE} (NPR 広東人))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N 運輸)))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP (N デパート経営))
                  (P など))
              (P に))
          (VB 関わっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 69_wikipedia_Shanghai))

The practice of burying Ps inside an NP, only now without coordination, is also adopted when か and も are part of an NP with an indeterminate (WH) element.

(101)
誰かが助けるだろう。
‘I hope somebody will help him.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1;{MAN_67} *pro*)
          (PP (NP (WPRO 誰)
                  (P か))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 助ける)
          (MD だろう)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 67_textbook_kisonihongo))

(102)
誰もその問題を解けなかった。
‘Nobody could solve the problem.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (WPRO 誰)
                  (P も))
          (PP (NP;{PROBLEM_737} (D その)
                                (N 問題))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 解け)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 737_textbook_kisonihongo))


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