Section 7
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7   Annotation of grammatical roles

This section explains how the relationships between grammatical roles and marking particles are annotated in different environments. Core grammatical roles and peripheral grammatical roles are illustrated in turn.

7.1   Core grammatical roles

First, we address overt NPs with core grammatical roles in the simple clause. Core grammatical roles are the roles that nominal arguments take with respect to the predicates that select them. An argument is a constituent without which the predicate cannot be fully interpreted. Every predicate requires at mininum a nominal argument with a core grammatical role of subject.

     Core grammatical roles are identified by nodes labelled NP-SBJ, NP-SBJ2, NP-LGS, NP-OB1, and NP-OB2. They are typically marked by particles が, に, を, の, etc. However, they may also be marked by toritate particles like は and も. They can also appear unaccompanied by particles.

7.1.1   Explicitly marked arguments

When an NP has core grammatical role and it is marked by a particle other than a toritate particle, it is tagged with disambiguation information that includes the identity of the particle in question. In the example below, (PP (NP (NPR 田中さん)) (P が)) is followed by (NP-SBJ *が*) to indicate that the PP headed by が contains an NP with the grammatical role of subject. (See section 8.1) The same sort of treatment is given to “first object” and “second object” in the example.

(31)
漁夫がその女房に金を渡しているところだった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 漁夫))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP (D その)
                  (N 女房))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB2 *に*)
          (PP (NP (N 金))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 渡し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (AX ところ)
          (AX だっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 80_aozora_Kobayashi-1929_a))

We assume that the realisation of a constituent with the grammatical role of subject is obligatory for virtually every predicate that heads an IP, so that 1-place predicates have only the subject as argument. Subjects are generally able to serve as antecedents to reflexive 自分 and able to license honorification morphology on the predicate. Semantically subjects are typically Agents of transitive and unergative predicates, Patients of unaccusative predicates, and Experiencer or Possessor or Attribute-holder of stative predicates.

     Subjects are typically marked by が within relative clauses, but can marked by case particles other than が, depending on the context. For example, within a clause modifying a noun, の can mark a subject.

(32)
これは、わが社の開発した最新型のワープロです。
‘This is the latest word processor model which our company has developed.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{STUFF_898} (PRO これ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-OB1 *T*)
                          (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_899} (PRO わが)
                                                (N 社))
                              (P の))
                          (NP-SBJ *の*)
                          (VB 開発)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AXD た))
                  (PP (NP (N 最新型))
                      (P の))
                  (N ワープロ))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 899_textbook_kisonihongo))

に marks the subject of predicates denoting possession (e.g., ある, いる), potential (e.g., できる, 分かる, 見える, 聞こえる), and feeling (e.g., うれしい).

(33)
実をいうと、私にもその理由はわからない。
‘To tell the truth, I do not understand the reason, either.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 実))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (VB いう))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_129} (PRO 私))
              (P に)
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *に*)
          (PP (NP;{REASON_129} (D その)
                               (N 理由))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (VB わから)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 129_textbook_kisonihongo))

Furthermore, で, and から may be used to mark the subject role.

     While a non-subject argument in a 2-place predicate is frequently marked by を, other particles like が and に can be used as well. The grammatical role is labelled NP-OB1.

(34)
四季の中では、秋が一番好きだ。
‘I like autumn best of the four seasons.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 四季))
                      (P の))
                  (N 中))
              (P で)
              (P は))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 秋))
              (P が))
          (NP-OB1 *が*)
          (ADVP (ADV 一番))
          (ADJN 好き)
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 329_textbook_kisonihongo))

(35)
私はハタとある事に気がついたのです。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV ハタと))
          (PP (NP (D ある)
                  (N 事))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB 気がつい)
          (AXD た)
          (P の)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 268_aozora_Edogawa-1929))

For arguments other than subjects, we refrain from associating their grammatical roles with traditional semantic descriptions. Note that a non-subject argument in a 2-place predicate is formally an NP-OB1, i.e., the first object in the sentence. Accordingly, the usage of に that might be regarded as ‘indirect object’ in traditional grammar can be assigned to NP-OB1.

We are not prepared to offer generalizable definitive criteria distinguishing between OB1 and OB2. If there is an を-marked argument in a 3-place predicate, we regularly mark that as OB1. OB2 can be marked by に and と.

(36)
叔父は花子に小遣いを与えた。
‘Her uncle gave Hanako some pocket money.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 叔父))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP;{HANAKO_204} (NPR 花子))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB2 *に*)
          (PP (NP (N 小遣い))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 与え)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 204_textbook_kisonihongo))

(37)
太郎がその犬をポンと名付けた。
‘Taro named the dog Pon.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{TARO_185} (NPR 太郎))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (NP;{DOG_185} (D その)
                            (N 犬))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (NP (NPR ポン))
              (P と))
          (NP-OB2 *と*)
          (VB 名付け)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 185_textbook_kisonihongo))

7.1.2   Implicitly marked arguments

NPs which perform a core grammatical role may not be necessarily marked by a particle associating that role with a predicate. To begin with, they may occur with toritate particles like は and も. In this case, disambiguating information of the form (NP-SBJ *) is created immediately after the PP. For example,

(38)
花子はまだ学生に見える。
‘Hanako still looks like a student.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{HANAKO_374} (NPR 花子))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV まだ))
          (PP (NP (N 学生))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB1 *に*)
          (VB 見える)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 374_textbook_kisonihongo))

When a particle is omitted, there is no reference to the omitted particle and the argument is linked directly under a label specifying the grammatical role, e.g., NP-SBJ, NP-OB1, etc.

(39)
君、あの本読んだ。
‘Did you read that book?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{HEARER_952} (PRO 君))
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-OB1;{BOOK_952} (D あの)
                                     (N 本))
                  (VB 読ん)
                  (AXD だ))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 952_textbook_kisonihongo))

7.1.3   Omitted NPs

When an NP with a core grammatical role does not appear explicitly in the sentence, it may be a zero pronoun, a trace within a relative clause, a controllee controlled by an NP in the matrix clause, etc. When the reference of an argument NP is understood in a sentence depending on the context, but it is not explicitly expressed and it is not a gap with an antecedent inferable from configuration, it is a zero pronoun with a node in the tree. In this case, a terminal node corresponding to the zero pronoun, e.g., *pro*, *exp*, *arb*, *hearer*, *speaker*, is created immediately below a node with a label showing the grammatical role like NP-SBJ. For example,

(40)
けれども、いつ来るか、わからない。

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{DAZAI} *speaker*)
          (CONJ けれども)
          (PU 、)
          (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{DAZAI_FRIENDS_DRINKING} *pro*)
                          (NP-TMP (WPRO いつ))
                          (VB 来る))
                  (P か))
          (PU 、)
          (VB わから)
          (NEG ない)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 80_aozora_Dazai-1-1940))

For details, see section 6.

     When a subject NP is omitted in a subordinate clause, its reference may be determined by a controller in the matrix clause. In such cases, no corresponding node is added to our annotation. In (41), the reference of the subject of the verb embedded by で is provided by the controller, i.e., the subject of the matrix clause わたし.

(41)
急いでわたしは出かけました。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (VB 急い)
                  (P で))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_25} (PRO わたし))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 出かけ)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 25_misc_EXAMPLE))

     There exist predicates selecting arguments which don't have the phrasal category NP: CP-THT, IP-SMC, PP. There is at present no consistently applied mechanism in the corpus for distinguishing these arguments from adjuncts (see section 7.2 on adjuncts).

7.2   Peripheral grammatical roles

Peripheral grammatical roles are performed by adjuncts (adverbial clauses, adverbial phrases, and various PPs). Adjuncts are not essential to the interpretation of the predicate: They are optional constituents.

7.2.1   Explicitly marked adjuncts

Nominal adjuncts marked by particles に, へ, で, から, まで, と, etc. form PP adjuncts. For PP adjuncts (unlike PP arguments with core grammatical roles), no disambiguation information is given to specify grammatical role. The particle marking the nominal adjunct is sufficient to specify its relation to the predicate. For example,

(42)
ビルは列車でパリに行った。
‘Bill went to Paris by train.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ビル))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 列車))
              (P で))
          (PP (NP (NPR パリ))
              (P に))
          (VB 行っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1181_misc_JSeM_beta_150530))

     The presence or absence of disambiguation information indicates whether particle に marks an argument or an adjunct. Below we list the obligatory and optional usages of に-marked NPs with corresponding predicates. With respect to predicates that don't appear with valence-increasing Voice morphology, に-marked NPs mark core grammatical roles of NP-SBJ, NP-OB1, or NP-OB2.

(43)
私はその子にお菓子をあげた。
‘I gave the child a sweet.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_289} (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP;{CHILD_289} (D その)
                              (N 子))
              (P に))
          (NP-OB2 *に*)
          (PP (NP (N お菓子))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB あげ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 289_textbook_kisonihongo))

(44)
ジョンは先生にしかられた。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ジョン))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (N 先生))
              (P に))
          (NP-LGS *に*)
          (VB しから)
          (PASS れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 22_misc_BUFFALO))

7.2.2   Implicitly marked NPs

If a particle is omitted from an NP, a PP projection is created and the expected particle is inserted as a terminal node that is placed between instances of ‘*’.

(45)
君、明日のパーティー出席するか。
‘Will you attend the party tomorrow?’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{HEARER_1325} (PRO 君))
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 明日))
                              (P の))
                          (N パーティー))
                      (P *に*))
                  (VB 出席)
                  (VB0 する))
          (P か)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1325_textbook_kisonihongo))

See also section 8.10.

7.2.3   Adjunct traces

While a zero pronoun or an empty position in a control or ATB environment can have an argument for an antecedent, a “gap” in a relative clause is the only place where an unindexed null element can be associated with an adjunct role. If the adjunct role is temporal or locative, this information can be added as an extension of the label. For example, (46) has trace: (NP-LOC *T*).

(46)
ここが高津さんが講演したところだ。
‘This is where Mr. Takatsu gave a lecture.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{CURRENT_PLACE_1198} (PRO ここ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-LOC *T*)
                          (PP (NP;{TAKATSU_1198} (NPR 高津さん))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 講演)
                          (VB0 し)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N ところ))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1198_textbook_kisonihongo))

     If the role associated with the modified head N is usually indicated by a particle, the trace can be located in an NP under a PP with the missing particle specified in a terminal beginning and ending with ‘*’. For example, (47) has trace: (PP (NP *T*) (P *に*)).

(47)
早朝、彼は住み慣れた町を出で立った.

( (IP-MAT (NP-TMP (N 早朝))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PRO 彼))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (PP (NP *T*)
                              (P *に*))
                          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                          (VB;{住み慣れる.01} 住み慣れ)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 町))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB;{出で立つ.01} 出で立っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU .))
  (ID 163_dictionary_vv-lexicon_20150226))


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