Section 27
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27   Clause coordination

This section takes up coordination between clauses. Discussion of other types of coordination (ADVP, PP, and NP) is deferred until section 28. First it is necessary to distinguish genuine coordination from the mere concatenation of utterances within a quotation. If there is concatenation of IP-MAT, IP-IMP or clauses of a CP* level within a quotation, or followed by a particle that modifies a noun with a content complement (という, といった, etc.), then the concatenated elements are placed directly under an instance of the multi-sentence tag. FRAG and INTJP, when forming distinct utterances, can also be placed directly under multi-sentence. See section 30.4 for discussion.

(290)
さつき町内会長の亀卦川正一さん(79)は「3月なら釧路の最低気温はマイナス20度前後、昼でもプラスになるかどうか。屋外では凍死してしまう」などと話した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (NP-PRD (NPR さつき町内会長))
                          (AX の))
                  (NPR 亀卦川正一さん)
                  (PRN (-LRB- ()
                       (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 79)))
                       (-RRB- ))))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (CP-THT (multi-sentence (-LRB- 「)
                                  (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 3)
                                                                  (CL 月)))
                                                      (P なら))
                                                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (NPR 釧路))
                                                              (P の))
                                                          (N 最低気温))
                                                      (P は))
                                                  (NP-SBJ *)
                                                  (NP-PRD (N マイナス)
                                                          (NUMCLP (NUM 20)
                                                                  (CL 度))
                                                          (N 前後))
                                                  (AX *)))
                                  (PU 、)
                                  (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ;{DAYTIME_TEMPERATURE} *pro*)
                                                  (PP (NP (N 昼))
                                                      (P で)
                                                      (P も))
                                                  (IP-SMC (NP-PRD (N プラス))
                                                          (AX に))
                                                  (VB なる))
                                          (P か)
                                          (WADV どう)
                                          (P か)
                                          (PU 。))
                                  (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                                          (PP (NP (N 屋外))
                                              (P で)
                                              (P は))
                                          (VB 凍死)
                                          (VB0 し)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 しまう))
                                  (-RRB- 」))
                  (P など)
                  (P と))
          (VB 話し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 10_newswire_KAHOKU_00095_K201407110A0T30XX00001))

(291)
とはいっても、壁はぎざぎざやとがったところがたくさんある念入りに彫刻された家具でさえぎられていた。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ とはいっても)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 壁))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N ぎざぎざ))
                                         (P や))
                                  (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                              (VB とがっ)
                                              (AX た))
                                      (N ところ)))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-OB1 *が*)
                          (NP;*OB1* (Q たくさん))
                          (VB ある))
                  (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (ADVP (ADJN 念入り)
                                (AX に))
                          (VB 彫刻)
                          (VB0 さ)
                          (PASS れ)
                          (AX た))
                  (N 家具))
              (P で))
          (NP-LGS *で*)
          (VB さえぎら)
          (PASS れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 9_aozora_Harada-1960_e))

     Setting aside clauses in quotation in general, and the question of parallel clauses in noun modification, we can still see that a sentence may contain clauses other than the main clause, and this phenomenon involves linkages of various kinds. A clause linkage is established when a clause1 ends in either a conjunctional particle, a non-finite inflection, or a conjunctional adverb, and is followed by another clause2.

27.1   Distinguishing between subordination and coordination

The first challenge is to recognise in a clause linkage whether a clause1 should be annotated as coordinated to or subordinated to a following clause2. While there are clause conjunctional particles that are regularly subordinating, just as there are clause conjunctional particles that are regularly coordinating, nevertheless there is some morphological overlap between the two scenarios (See section 8.5.1, 8.5.2, and 8.5.3). Furthermore, the two non-finite inflections that are involved in clause coordination (the ren'yookei form and the て-form) can both be used in subordination as well. The consequences of an annotation decision between SCON or CND on the one hand and CONJ on the other are very specific: Subordinated clause linkage (with SCON or CND) allows a control environment for the calculation of antecedent relations. Coordinated clause linkage (with CONJ) creates an ATB extraction environment for the calculation of antecedent relations. The two environments are disjoint. Accordingly the criteria for deciding between subordination and coordination in the case of ambiguous morphology are first and foremost syntactic in nature.

     One test for subordination is whether clause1 can be said to modify the predicate heading clause2 in the sense of a manner adverb. When this adverbial function is seen with either a て-form or infinitive clause1, the syntactic relationship is marked with SCON.

     In (292) もちもちで  modifies おいしい.

(292)
米粉のパンがもちもちでおいしい

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 米粉))
                      (P の))
                  (N パン))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (IP-ADV (NP-PRD (N もちもち))
                  (AX で))
          (SCON *)
          (ADJI おいしい))
  (ID 35_misc_BUFFALO))

In (293) 満足そうに  modifies 語った.

(293)
最高責任者のリン・エバンス氏(英国)は視察後、満足そうに語った。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{EVANS} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (NP-PRD (N 最高責任者))
                                  (AX の))
                          (NPR リン・エバンス氏)
                          (PRN (-LRB- ()
                               (NP (NPR 英国))
                               (-RRB- ))))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-TMP (N 視察後))
          (PU 、)
          (ADVP (ADJN 満足)
                (MD そう)
                (AX に))
          (VB 語っ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 15_newswire_KAHOKU_00089_K201401040A0F70XX00001))

In (41) 急いで  modifies 出かけました.

(41)
急いでわたしは出かけました。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (VB 急い)
                  (P で))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP;{SPEAKER_25} (PRO わたし))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 出かけ)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 25_misc_EXAMPLE))

In (295) 最先端の研究環境を求めて  modifies 集まり.

(295)
実現すれば、最先端の研究環境を求めて世界中から研究者が集まり、国際都市の形成が予想される。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{COLLIDER} *pro*)
                  (VB 実現)
                  (VB0 すれ)
                  (P ば))
          (CND *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 最先端))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 研究環境))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 求め)
                          (P て))
                  (SCON *)
                  (PP (NP (N 世界中))
                      (P から))
                  (PP (NP (N 研究者))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 集まり))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 国際都市))
                      (P の))
                  (N 形成))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 予想)
          (VB0 さ)
          (PASS れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 40_newswire_KAHOKU_00089_K201401040A0F70XX00001))

The question of the degree to which clause1 constitutes a modification of the predication in clause2 may come down to fine distinctions of semantics. While such distinctions correlate with the syntactic facts to some degree, they aren't reliable criteria. When judgments aren't clear, we resort to better tests.

     More reliable tests involve ascertaining what patterns of constituent-sharing can obtain between clauses. Subordinated clauses allow control environments (see section 26.2 for details). In (296), a は-marked subject is shared between clause1 and clause2 by controlling into clause1.

(296)
企画段階で紆余曲折を経た本作は、放映開始されても順風満帆とは行かなかった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (N 企画段階))
                              (P で))
                          (PP (NP (N 紆余曲折))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 経)
                          (AXD た))
                  (N 本作))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (VB 放映開始)
                      (VB0 さ)
                      (PASS れ)
                      (P て))
              (P も))
          (SCON *)
          (PP (NP (N 順風満帆))
              (P と)
              (P は))
          (VB 行か)
          (NEG なかっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 81_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

Non-subject arguments can also control into subordinate clauses as long as they appear to the left of clause1:

(297)
私は実際、社長さんをとてもありがたいと思っています。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 私))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (ADVP (ADV 実際))
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 社長さん))
              (P を))
          (NP-DOB1 *を*)
          (CP-THT (IP-SMC (ADVP (ADV とても))
                          (ADJI ありがたい))
                  (P と))
          (VB 思っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 い)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 153_aozora_Harada-1960_b))

(298)
僕はその切符を高くたって買います。
‘I will buy the ticket even if it is expensive .’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PRO 僕))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (D その)
                  (N 切符))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (ADJI 高く))
              (P たって))
          (CND *)
          (VB 買い)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 316_textbook_djg_basic))

     But a particularly robust test for subordination is whether an NP-SBJ appearing to the right of clause1 can serve as an antecedent to a gapped position in clause1 (‘left-pronominalization’). In the example below, this is a control relation into a subordinate clause:

(299)
隣の人を置いて自分だけ逃げられるかは疑問だ。

( (IP-MAT (PP (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 隣))
                                                  (P の))
                                              (N 人))
                                          (P を))
                                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                      (VB 置い)
                                      (P て))
                              (SCON *)
                              (PP (NP (PRO 自分))
                                  (P だけ))
                              (NP-SBJ *)
                              (VB 逃げ)
                              (VB2 られる))
                      (P か))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (N 疑問))
          (AX だ)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 26_newswire_KAHOKU_00095_K201407110A0T30XX00001))

Note that between coordinated clauses, a right-hand conjunct can never provide an antecedent for a pronoun in a conjunct to its left as is the case in (299).

     In contrast to subordination, in a canonical coordination scenario, there is “Across the Board Extraction” (ATB) from all conjuncts: Left-posed constituents are inherited equally by each of the conjuncts. There is no restriction on the type of constituents extracted. In the example below, the left-posed adjunct 釜の中で is interpreted inside each of the three conjuncts:

(300)
釜の中でブドウパンが焼けてパン生地が膨らみ、その中のブドウ同士の間隔が広がっていくように、空間が広がり銀河同士が離れていくのです。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 釜))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 中))
                              (P で))
                          (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N ブドウパン))
                                              (P が))
                                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                          (VB 焼け)
                                          (P て))
                                  (CONJ *)
                                  (PP (NP (N パン生地))
                                      (P が))
                                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                  (VB 膨らみ))
                          (PU 、)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                                                  (N 中))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N ブドウ)
                                          (Q 同士))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 間隔))
                              (P が))
                          (NP-SBJ *が*)
                          (VB 広がっ)
                          (P て)
                          (VB2 いく))
                  (N よう))
              (P に))
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 空間))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 広がり))
          (PP (NP (N 銀河)
                  (Q 同士))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 離れ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いく)
          (P の)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 5_newswire_KAHOKU_11382_K201401010A0A30XX00006))

     Accordingly, a simple test for coordination is whether a leftmost adverbial constitutent can be interpreted with its grammatical role constant inside of both clause1 and clause2. If this is possible, the two clauses are coordinated. In (301) the locative phrase 元々貸しスタジオである「東映生田スタジオ」には  is interpreted in both the clause headed by なく  and that headed by あるのみで. The two clauses are coordinated.

(301)
元々貸しスタジオである「東映生田スタジオ」には満足な撮影設備もなく、撮影用の平台が一つあるのみで、バラック建ての建物は雨が降ると反響音によってアフレコもできない状況だった。

( (IP-MAT (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                  (ADVP (ADV 元々))
                                  (NP-PRD (N 貸しスタジオ))
                                  (AX で)
                                  (VB2 ある))
                          (-LRB- 「)
                          (NPR 東映生田スタジオ)
                          (-RRB- 」))
                      (P に)
                      (P は))
                  (IP-ADV (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                          (ADJN 満足)
                                          (AX な))
                                  (N 撮影設備))
                              (P も))
                          (NP-SBJ *)
                          (ADJI なく))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 撮影用))
                              (P の))
                          (N 平台))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (NP;*SBJ* (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                    (CL つ)))
                  (VB ある)
                  (P のみ)
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N バラック建て))
                      (P の))
                  (N 建物))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-PRD (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ;{STAFF} *pro*)
                          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 雨))
                                          (P が))
                                      (NP-SBJ *が*)
                                      (VB 降る))
                              (P と))
                          (SCON *)
                          (PP (NP (N 反響音))
                              (P によって))
                          (PP (NP (N アフレコ))
                              (P も))
                          (NP-OB1 *)
                          (VB でき)
                          (NEG ない))
                  (N 状況))
          (AX だっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 82_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

     Another straightforward example of how antecedent relations disambiguate the two linkage types is instantiated in (302). A left-posed element is not shared by an immediately following IP-ADV, having an OB1 role only with respect to the main clause predicate. As only the subject is shared between the two clauses, the structure does not exhibit ATB and the linkage can only be subordination.

(302)
バットは脇を締めてこう振り抜くんです。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N バット))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (PP (NP (N 脇))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 締め)
                  (P て))
          (SCON *)
          (NP-SBJ *arb*)
          (ADVP (ADV こう))
          (VB 振り)
          (VB2 抜く)
          (P ん)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 912_textbook_kisonihongo))

     Of course, to a limited extent morphology can disambiguate between subordination and coordination. Some particles marking IP-ADVs are indications that the clauses are coordinate conjuncts:

(303)
「それは鉄とまぜたり、薬をつくったりするのだそうです。」

( (IP-MAT (-LRB- 「)
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (PP (NP (PRO それ))
              (P は))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 鉄))
                      (P と))
                  (VB まぜ)
                  (P たり))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 薬))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB つくっ)
          (P たり)
          (VB2 する)
          (P の)
          (AX だ)
          (MD そう)
          (AX です)
          (PU 。)
          (-RRB- 」))
  (ID 189_aozora_Miyazawa-1934_a))

(304)
締切は迫っているし、体調は悪いし、一体どうしたらいいのだろう。
‘What on earth should I do, the deadline is looming and I am in bad shape.’

( (CP-QUE (IP-SUB (PP (IP-ADV (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 締切))
                                              (P は))
                                          (NP-SBJ *)
                                          (VB 迫っ)
                                          (P て)
                                          (VB2 いる))
                                  (P し))
                              (CONJ *)
                              (PU 、)
                              (PP (NP (N 体調))
                                  (P は))
                              (NP-SBJ *)
                              (ADJI 悪い))
                      (P し))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (PU 、)
                  (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
                  (PP (IP-ADV (ADVP (ADV 一体))
                              (ADVP (WADV どう))
                              (VB し))
                      (P たら))
                  (ADJI いい)
                  (P の)
                  (AX だろ)
                  (MD う))
          (PU 。))
  (ID 1233_textbook_kisonihongo))

(305)
前述の「少年マガジン」誌連載の折衝も進められていたが、毎日放送の営業部内でまだこのヒーローのデザインを危ぶむ声が強かった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 前述))
                                  (P の))
                              (NML (PP (NP (N 「少年マガジン」誌連載))
                                       (P の))
                                   (N 折衝)))
                          (P も))
                      (NP-SBJ *)
                      (VB 進め)
                      (PASS られ)
                      (P て)
                      (VB2 い)
                      (AXD た))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP;{SALES_DEPT} (PP (NP (NPR 毎日放送))
                                   (P の))
                               (N 営業部内))
              (P で))
          (ADVP (ADV まだ))
          (PP (NP (IP-EMB (NP-SBJ;{SALES_DEPT} *pro*)
                          (PP (NP (D この)
                                  (PP (NP (N ヒーロー))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N デザイン))
                              (P を))
                          (NP-OB1 *を*)
                          (VB 危ぶむ))
                  (N 声))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (ADJI 強かっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 66_wikipedia_Kamen_Rider))

Some CONJ items regularly link coordinated clauses:

(306)
これは、携帯に便利なだけでなく、寿命も長い。
‘Besides being convenient for carrying, this has a long life.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{PRODUCT_822} (PRO これ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 携帯))
                          (P に))
                      (ADJN 便利)
                      (AX な))
              (P だけでなく))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (N 寿命))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ2 *)
          (ADJI 長い)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 822_textbook_kisonihongo))

But there are cases where there is not enough material in a given sentence to determine whether it is a case of subordination or coordination: for example, in the case of saturated clauses linked with an ambiguous form such as the ren'yookei, the て-form, or a particle like ものの. In such cases testing whether the introduction of a leftmost manner adverbial results in inheritance by both clause1 and clause2 may rule out subordination.

     Alternatively, moving a constituent from clause2 to a position to the left of clause1 without a change in meaning may rule out coordination.

     In a case where a leftmost subject is shared between clause1 and clause2, moving that subject to the right of clause1 without a change of meaning may rule out coordination.

     The techniques described above should be enough to resolve most of the borderline cases. Where a clear judgment is not forthcoming, annotating linkage as coordination makes the stronger and more interesting claim.

     In the event that a clause linkage is found where the tests above give conflicting results, the practice is to use the following annotation: (CONJ *) (COMMENT \{CONJ_BY_DEFAULT\}).

     Finally, a word of caution about using evidence other than the tests suggested here. Distinctions based solely on semantics, or a combination of semantics and morphology, are not at issue here and should be ignored.

     Furthermore, beware of inferences based on argument sharing patterns other than the ones mentioned above. For example, overt arguments in subordinated clause1 can be shared with clause2 when there is the addition of binding information and when clause2 contains a pronoun, either overtly, or as a zero element like in (307).

(307)
宿の主人が一匹の子猫の頸をつまんでぶら下げながら橋の向う側の袂へ行ってぽいとそれをほうり出した。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 宿))
                      (P の))
                  (N 主人))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (PP (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP;{CAT} (PP;* (NP (NUMCLP (NUM 一)
                                                              (CL 匹)))
                                                  (P の))
                                            (N 子猫))
                                  (P の))
                              (N 頸))
                          (P を))
                      (NP-OB1 *を*)
                      (IP-ADV (VB つまん)
                              (P で))
                      (CONJ *)
                      (VB ぶら下げ))
              (P ながら))
          (SCON *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 橋))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N 向う側))
                              (P の))
                          (N 袂))
                      (P へ))
                  (VB 行っ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PP (ADVP (ADV ぽい))
              (P と))
          (PP (NP;{CAT} (PRO それ))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB ほうり出し)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 94_aozora_Terada-1929))

Likewise, between coordinated clauses, a constituent in a left-hand conjunct can provide an antecedent for a pronoun in a conjunct to its right. In the example below binding information is used to establish the antecedence relation:

(308)
見出しの上にはその記事のジャンルなどを示すキーワード(アイコン)をつけ、クリックすると関連記事のページが開かれる。

( (IP-MAT (PP (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (NP-SBJ;{EDITOR} *pro*)
                              (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 見出し))
                                          (P の))
                                      (N 上))
                                  (P に)
                                  (P は))
                              (PP (NP;{ICON} (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                                     (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                                                                     (N 記事))
                                                                 (P の))
                                                             (N ジャンル))
                                                         (P など)
                                                         (P を))
                                                     (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                                     (VB 示す))
                                             (N キーワード)
                                             (PRN (-LRB- ()
                                                  (NP (N アイコン))
                                                  (-RRB- ))))
                                  (P を))
                              (NP-OB1 *を*)
                              (VB つけ))
                      (CONJ *)
                      (PU 、)
                      (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                      (NP-OB1;{ICON} *pro*)
                      (VB クリック)
                      (VB0 する))
              (P と))
          (CND *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 関連記事))
                      (P の))
                  (N ページ))
              (P が))
          (NP-SBJ *が*)
          (VB 開か)
          (VB2 れる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 26_newswire_KAHOKU_00097_K201402230A0T20XX00001))

Given that between linked clauses of either type, a constituent in a left-hand conjunct can provide an antecedent for a pronoun in a conjunct to its right, this pattern is not a test, even if it can be construed as an indication of the degree of “dependence” between the two clauses.

     Note also that the possibility of using binding information poses a choice for the annotator with regard to left-posed constituents shared between coordinated clauses: One option is to put them in the first conjunct and use binding information to associate them with null elements in all following conjuncts. The other option is to use the ATB scenario, leaving them under the highest IP and allowing CONJ to enforce inheritance by all conjuncts. The latter choice is the one preferred.

27.2   Expressing coordination while maintaining flat clausal stucture

For the purpose of calculating semantics and by common conventions for capturing structure, “clause coordination” should mean “sisterhood of categories X1,2...n-1 all and only dominated by category Xn”, where X might be a full clause unit or an intermediate clause layer such as VP. But common conventions notwithstanding, the addition of an Xn layer creates a constituent for which (i) the grammatical function of material adjoining to Xn (viz. the coordinated elements X1,2...n-1 ) is not clear, and (ii) the function Xn has with respect to the category to which Xn adjoins (viz. the superordinate IP) is also not clear. The treebank model strives to explicitly specify a grammatical role for every constituent, so that grammatical phenomena can always be structurally defined, and thereby searched without necessitating ad-hoc navigations of unpredictable tree structure. Accordingly, a different strategy is followed that captures clause coordination as clause adjunction plus CONJ.

     The way this annotation is interpreted by the semantics can be inspected by either looking at any instantiation of clause coordination in the index mode of the Emacs annotation tool, or by sending any instantiation of clause coordination through the following pipeline in a Linux command terminal:

$ Keyaki ID line# | parsed_indexed --iml | show_tree

It will be seen that for the purposes of indexing and semantic interpretation the coordinated clauses are indeed sisters under an intermediate layer.

     In practice, coordination between a clause1 and a following clause2 is annotated so that clause1 is dominated by clause2, with the crucial addition of a CONJ element immediately following clause1. The first of the two conjuncts is an IP-ADV, frequently under a PP headed by a conjunctive particle. See the section 8.5.3 for discussion of the particles. In the discussion below, whenever IP-ADV is referred to such (PP (IP-ADV ...) (P ...)) structures are meant to be included.

     CONJ can either be null (CONJ *) or have an overt conjunctional adverb. For the overtly present case, punctuation intervening between the IP-ADV and following conjunct is allowed.

(309)
ノアはその時代の人々の中で正しく、かつ全き人であった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (NPR ノア))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP (PP (NP (D その)
                                  (N 時代))
                              (P の))
                          (N 人々))
                      (P の))
                  (N 中))
              (P で))
          (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (IP-ADV (ADJI 正しく))
                          (PU 、)
                          (CONJ かつ)
                          (ADJI 全き))
                  (N 人))
          (AX で)
          (VB2 あっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 163_bible_old))

     When there are multiple conjuncts this arrangement gives a stacked list effect so that, for example, clause1 is dominated by clause2 which is dominated by clause3 . In such a structure, all constituents that precede and are sister to the second-to-last conjunct (that is, the last (IP-ADV ...) (CONJ ...) pair) are “inherited” by each conjunct. (The remainder of this section considers cases with only two conjuncts, while section 27.3 illustrates the more than two conjuncts scenario.) Note that as with control, a zero pronoun that takes an ATB extracted antecedent is not explicitly annotated. But also note that, unlike control, any constituent can be inherited by coordinate conjuncts, provided that it is (ATB) left-posed. Furthermore, the grammatical role of an extracted constituent is preserved in each conjunct (another contrast with control).

(310)
また一方で、地元マスメディアも地元の人材活用をするようになって、バンド・タレント・芸能人・モデルなどのローカルタレントが増加して、隣県のメディアに進出する者も表れた。

( (IP-MAT (CONJ また)
          (PP (NP (N 一方))
              (P で))
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 地元マスメディア))
                      (P も))
                  (NP-SBJ *)
                  (PP (NP (IP-EMB (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 地元))
                                              (P の))
                                          (N 人材活用))
                                      (P を))
                                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                                  (VB する))
                          (N よう))
                      (P に))
                  (VB なっ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (CONJP (NP (N バンド)))
                                  (PU ・)
                                  (CONJP (NP (N タレント)))
                                  (PU ・)
                                  (CONJP (NP (N 芸能人)))
                                  (PU ・)
                                  (NP (N モデル))
                                  (P など))
                              (P の))
                          (N ローカルタレント))
                      (P が))
                  (NP-SBJ *が*)
                  (VB 増加)
                  (VB0 し)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 隣県))
                                      (P の))
                                  (N メディア))
                              (P に))
                          (VB 進出)
                          (VB0 する))
                  (N 者))
              (P も))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (VB 表れ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 263_wikipedia_Sendai_City))

(311)
それは1万5千円のものですが,今はバーゲンで1万円です。
‘It was originally fifteen thousand, but it's now ten thousand as it's on sale.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{COMMODITY_7} (PRO それ))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PP (IP-ADV (NP-PRD (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                                      (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 1万5千)
                                                      (CL 円)))
                                      (AX の))
                              (N もの))
                      (AX です))
              (P が))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU ,)
          (PP (NP (N 今))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (IP-ADV (NP-PRD (N バーゲン))
                  (AX で))
          (CONJ *)
          (NP-PRD (NUMCLP (NUM 1万)
                          (CL 円)))
          (AX です)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 8_misc_EXAMPLE))

(312)
昨日は刺身を食べて,お腹を壊してしまいました。
‘I had a stomach ache yesterday from eating sashimi.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ;{SPEAKER_13} *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N 昨日))
              (P は))
          (NP-TMP *)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (N 刺身))
                      (P を))
                  (NP-OB1 *を*)
                  (VB 食べ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU ,)
          (PP (NP (N お腹))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (VB 壊し)
          (P て)
          (VB2 しまい)
          (AX まし)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 13_misc_EXAMPLE))

(313)
晩ごはんを作って,食べます。
‘I cook and eat dinner.’

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *speaker*)
          (PP (NP (N 晩ごはん))
              (P を))
          (NP-OB1 *を*)
          (IP-ADV (VB 作っ)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (PU ,)
          (VB 食べ)
          (AX ます)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 11_misc_EXAMPLE))

     If there is an overt CONJ then it is treated as a constituent of the conjunct to the left, that is, an IP level word.

(314)
鈴木さんは、外国の事情に詳しいばかりでなく、日本のこともよく知っている。
‘Mr. Suzuki is not only familiar with the situation of foreign countries, but also knows a lot about Japan.’

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP;{SUZUKI_821} (NPR 鈴木さん))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (IP-ADV (PP (NP (PP (NP (N 外国))
                              (P の))
                          (N 事情))
                      (P に))
                  (ADJI 詳しい))
          (CONJ ばかりでなく)
          (PU 、)
          (PP (NP (PP (NP;{JAPAN} (NPR 日本))
                      (P の))
                  (N こと))
              (P も))
          (NP-OB1 *)
          (ADVP (ADV よく))
          (VB 知っ)
          (P て)
          (VB2 いる)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 821_textbook_kisonihongo))

27.3   Multiple clausal conjuncts

Multiple clausal conjuncts are stacked so that, for example, clause1 is dominated by clause2 which is dominated by clause3. Clauses so stacked should be leftmost with regards to the next higher clause, except when the next higher clause is the last in the stack. This is shown by examples (315) and (316), and the figure below.

(315)
暗くて、たくましくて、ちょっともの悲しいリアス式海岸は、僕にとっての東北の原点。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (IP-REL (NP-SBJ *T*)
                          (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (ADJI 暗く)
                                          (P て))
                                  (CONJ *)
                                  (PU 、)
                                  (ADJI たくましく)
                                  (P て))
                          (CONJ *)
                          (PU 、)
                          (ADVP (ADV ちょっと))
                          (ADJI もの悲しい))
                  (N リアス式海岸))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (PU 、)
          (NP-PRD (PP (NP (PP (NP (PRO 僕))
                              (P にとって)
                              (P の))
                          (NPR 東北))
                      (P の))
                  (N 原点))
          (AX *)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 36_newswire_KAHOKU_00303_K201401010W5XP4XX00001))

(316)
僕は集めて集めて集めまくった。

( (IP-MAT (PP (NP (N 僕))
              (P は))
          (NP-SBJ *)
          (NP-OB1;{STUFF_38} *pro*)
          (IP-ADV (IP-ADV (VB 集め)
                          (P て))
                  (CONJ *)
                  (VB 集め)
                  (P て))
          (CONJ *)
          (VB 集め)
          (VB2 まくっ)
          (AXD た)
          (PU 。))
  (ID 38_misc_EXAMPLE))

27.4   Summary

To sum up, the possibilities for clause coordination are limited to clause linkage from IP-ADV, either (i) directly through a non-finite inflection (infinitive or infinitive + て), (ii) through a PP headed by a conjunctive particle (iii) either (i) or (ii) followed by an overt coordinating conjunction (CONJ). In all these scenarios, the distinction between coordination and subordination must be marked with either CONJ on the one hand, or with SCON or CND on the other.


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